Ketoprofen Loaded in Natural Rubber Latex Transdermal Patch for Tendinitis Treatment
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Ketoprofen is an analgesic with potent anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammation, subacute inflammation, for the acute and long-term treatment of various inflammatory pathologies, as rheumatoid arthritis and colonic adenocarcinoma. In order to minimize the incidence of systemic events related to ketoprofen, the transdermal drug delivery system development has been most important. The advantages of using natural rubber latex membranes include not only the reduction of adverse systemic events, but also the suitability of the low cost of the material together with its physicochemical properties such as flexibility, mechanical stability, surface porosity and water vapor permeability, and besides being a biocompatible material also presents biological activity to stimulate the angiogenesis, being able to be used in tissue repair. This study demonstrated that ketoprofen was successfully incorporated into natural latex membranes for drug delivery. FTIR indicated that the drug did not interact chemically with the membrane. Moreover, the natural latex membranes released 60% of the ketoprofen incorporated in 50 h. SEM images indicated that a portion of the drug was present on the membrane surface, being this portion responsible for the burst release. The tensile tests showed that the addition of the drug into the natural latex membrane did not influence on the polymer mechanical behavior. In addition, drug-natural latex membranes presented no red blood cell damaging effects. Our data shows that the ketoprofen loaded natural latex membranes is a promising system for sustained drug delivery which can be used to minimize the adverse side effects of high dose systemic drug delivery.
KeywordsNatural rubber latex Transdermal drug delivery system Ketoprofen Anti-inflammatory Biomaterial
Deproteinized natural rubber latex
Fourier transform infrared
Natural rubber latex
Scanning electron microscopy
Transdermal drug delivery systems
Phosphate buffered saline
Our thanks to Prof. Dr. Joaquin Coutinho Netto (in memoriam), for his great contribution to the study and understanding of the bioactive properties of latex.
This work was supported by CAPES, CNPq (Process: 470261/2012-9) and FAPESP (Processes 2014/17526-8, 2011/17411-8).
Availability of Data and Materials
All data analysed during the current study that are not already included in this published article, are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. JFF, NRB, JLFC, JLPG, RGS, AVL, FAB, AMQN and ALDC realized the experimental techniques. JFF, AVL and FAB realized the kinetic release of extract, NRB and ALDC realized the SEM, mechanical resistance and FTIR analyses. JLFC, JLPG and AMQN realized the hemolysis assay. The mechanism of release was evaluated by NRB and RGS. NRB, AVL, FAB, BCG and ALCD had corrected the typographical and grammatical errors. Finally, the format of the paper has been updated by RDH and CFOG. RDH and CFOG are advisors and the head of laboratory. All authors read and approved the final paper.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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