Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 2061–2071 | Cite as

Smart Hydrogel of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Grafted Carboxymethyl Polyvinyl Alcohol and Properties Studied for Future Material Applications

  • Nuraina Anisa Dahlan
  • Janarthanan Pushpamalar
  • Anand Kumar Veeramachineni
  • Saravanan Muniyandy
Original Paper


A novel grafted copolymer was synthesized from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxymethyl polyvinyl alcohol (CMPVA) using adipic dihydrazide as the crosslinker. The optimized grafted CMC-g-CMPVA with formulation 3% CMC and 1% CMPVA is sensitive to different pH conditions and exhibited a high swelling capacity. The swelling percentages were 360, 1440 and 2277% at pH 1, 7 and 11, respectively and could retain the shape of the hydrogel that assists easy handling. This smart copolymer forms a hydrogel that is pH responsive that could be utilized in the specific pH environment such as in waste water management, agricultural industry, and drug delivery system. The grafted CMC-g-CMPVA was found to be biocompatible with the living cells and has excellent survival rate at lower polymer concentration and, therefore, this grafted copolymer can be employed in biomedical applications such as drug delivery system and scaffolds in the tissue engineering.


Carboxymethyl cellulose Carboxymethyl polyvinyl alcohol Grafted copolymer Biocompatible 



Thanks to Dr. Peters Nichols for running the sample for the solid-state NMR at Monash University Australia. Our valuable gratitude to Dr. Alan Yiu Wah Lee from School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia for providing the brain cells. The study is funded by School of Science, Monash University Malaysia as Honours studentship fund.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ScienceMonash University MalaysiaBandar SunwayMalaysia
  2. 2.School of PharmacyMonash University MalaysiaBandar SunwayMalaysia

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