Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 1940–1949 | Cite as

Novel Bio-based Bisfuranic Polyesters by Interchange Reactions Between Bisfuranic Diester Bearing Pendent Carboxylic Acid Group and Bio-based Dihydroxy Compounds

  • Dalia K. Ali
  • Bassam A. Sweileh
Original Paper


Five new polyesters fully based on renewable organic compounds were synthesized by melt polycondensation of a new bisfuranic monomer prepared from methyl 2-furoate and levulinic acid with bio-based aliphatic dihydroxy compounds. The polymerization process consisted of a precondensation step under a stream of dry argon at atmospheric pressure involving elimination of methanol, followed with a melt polycondensation step at 180 °C under vacuum. The polyesters were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis. The thermal behavior of the polyesters was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. All polyesters synthesized showed good thermal stabilities, they experience only 1% mass loss at temperatures higher than 270 °C. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the polyesters, measured by DSC, were in the range from 37 to 119 °C. The swelling capacity was measured by beaker test method; the capacity range observed was from 112 to 232%. Based on this percentage range the polyesters are generally considered hydrophilic.

Graphical Abstract


Bio-based polyester Melt polycondensation Bisfuran Aliphatic dihydroxy compounds Interchange reactions 



This work was performed in The University of Jordan. The authors gratefully acknowledge The University of Jordan for the financial support of this project (Recommendation number 2/2014–2015) and for providing facilities and chemicals. The authors thank Ms. Fatima Mustafa and Ms. Rula Hassouneh for NMR measurements and Ms. Ruba Zalloum and Mrs. Abeer Malhis for FTIR and thermal analyses measurements.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry Department, School of ScienceThe University of JordanAmmanJordan

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