Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 1950–1961 | Cite as

A Novel Hybrid 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy Acetate Bead from Modified Cassava Starch and Sodium Alginate with Modified Natural Rubber Coating

  • Sa-Ad Riyajan
Original Paper


A novel herbicide bead was developed by phase separation, utilizing modified cassava starch (CSt), sodium alginate (SA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate (2,4 DA), and the beads were also coated with natural rubber grafted with cassava starch (NR-graft-CSt) to aid their water resistance. The alginate gel beads with 65% entrapped 2,4 DA showed 90% release within 24 h. The incorporation of CSt in the beads markedly improved their encapsulation efficiency to 98% and sustained the release of the herbicide for 700 h. The water resistance was improved by coating the beads with NR-graft-CSt when compared with the pure CSt/SA bead. The synthesized bead has excellent potential for agricultural applications.


Polysaccharide Cassava starch Biodegradation polymer Agriculture Reactive agent Natural rubber 



The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by Thammasat University Research fund under the TU research scholar scheme and Center of Scientific Equipment for Advanced Research, Thammasat University. This study was supported by The Thailand Research Fund/Prince of Songkla University/Thammasat University for financial support (RSA5780018) and Thammasat University.


  1. 1.
    Singh B, Sharma DK, Kumar R A (2009) Controlled release of the fungicide thiram from starch-alginate-clay based formulation. Appl Clay Sci 45:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li J, Li Y, Dong H (2008) Controlled release of herbicide acetochlor from clay/carboxymethylcellulose gel formulations. J Agric Food Chem 56:1336–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang L, Jin Y, Liu H, Du Y (2001) Structure and control release of chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose microcapsules. J Appl Polym Sci 82:584–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garrido-Herrera FJ, Gonzáles-Pradas E, Fernández-Pérez M (2006) Controlled release of isoproturon, imidacloprid, and cyromazine from alginate-bentonite-activated carbon formulations. J Agr Food Chem 54:10053–10060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gerstl Z, Nasser A, Mingelgrin U (1998) Controlled release of pesticides from clay-polymer formulations. J Agr Food Chem 46:3803–3809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dong H, Li F, Li J, Li Y (2012) Characterizations of blend gels of carboxymethylated polysaccharides and their use for the controlled release of herbicide. J Macromol Sci A 49:235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biswas N, Sahoo RK (2016) Tapioca starch blended alginate mucoadhesive-floating beads for intragastric delivery of Metoprolol Tartrate. Int J Biol Macromol 83:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raman SP, Gurikov P, Smirnova I (2015) Hybrid alginate based aerogels by carbon dioxide induced gelation: novel technique for multiple applications. J Supercrit Fluid 106: 23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fujiwara GM, Campos R, Costa CK, ⋯, Marques FA, Zanin SMW (2013) Production and characterization of alginate-starch-chitosan microparticles containing stigmasterol through the external ionic gelation technique. Braz J Pharm Sci 49:537–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Magné C, Saladin G, Clément C (2006) Transient effect of the herbicide flazasulfuron on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L. Chemosphere 62:650–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Royuela M, Gonzalez A, Gonzalez EM, Arrese-Igor C, Aparicio-Tejo PM, Gonzalez-Murua C (2000) Physiological consequences of continuous, sublethal imazethapyr supply to pea plants. J Plant Physiol 157:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Trimnell D, Shasha BS (1990) Controlled release formulations of atrazine in starch for potential reduction of groundwater pollution. J Control Release 12:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Negri AP, Flores F, Mercurio P, Mueller JF, Collie CJ (2015) Lethal and sub-lethal chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on seagrass. Aquat Toxicol 165:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tan W, Liang T, Li Q, Du Y, Zhai H (2014) The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leave. Pestic Biochem Phys 114:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maataoui M, Sallanon H (2015) Tolerance to clomazone herbicide is linked to the state of LHC, PQ-pool and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). J Plant Physiol 175:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Riyajan S, Sasithornsonti Y, Phinyocheep P (2012) Green natural rubber-g-modified starch for controlling urea release. Carbohydr Polym 89:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Riyajan S, Sakdapipanich J (2009) Development of a controlled release neem capsule with a sodium alginate matrix, crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and coated with natural rubber. Polym Bull 63:609–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeng Y, Wang K, Yao J, Wang H (2014) Hollow carbon beads for significant water evaporation enhancement. Chem Eng Sci 116:704–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smrdel P, Bogataj M, Mrhar A (2008) The influence of selected parameters on the size and shape of alginate beads prepared by ionotropic gelation. Sci Pharm 76:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Potkonjak B, Jovanović J, Stanković B, Ostojić S, Adnadjević B (2015) Comparative analyses on isothermal kinetics of water evaporation and hydrogel dehydration by a novel nucleation kinetics model. Chem Eng Res Des 100:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang S, Liu C, Wang S (2016) Drying methods used in starch isolation change properties of C-type chestnut (Castanea mollissima) starches. LWT Food Sci Technol 73:663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Legrouri A, Lakraimi M, Barroug A, De Roy A, Besse JP (2005) Removal of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate from water to zinc-aluminium-chloride layered double hydroxides. Water Res 39:3441–3448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mahmoudi Najafi SH, Baghaie M, Ashori A (2016) Preparation and characterization of acetylated starch nanoparticles as drug carrier: Ciprofloxacin as a model. Int J Biol Macromol 87:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kanti P, Srigowri K, Madhuri J, Smitha B, Sridhar S (2004) Dehydration of ethanol through blend membranes of chitosan and sodium alginate by pervaporation. Sep Purif Technol 40:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Muthukumar T, Aravinthan A, Mukesh D (1988) Effect of environment on the degradation of starch and pro-oxidant blended polyolefins. Polym Degrad Stabil 95:1988–1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bashi AM, Zobir Hussein M, Zainal Z, Tichit D (2013) Synthesis and controlled release properties of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate–zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid. J Solid State Chem 203:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arockianathan PM, Sekar S, Sankar S, Kumaran B, Sastry TP (2012) Evaluation of biocomposite films containing alginate and sago starch impregnated with silver nano particles. Carbohydr Polym 90:717–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jiang S, Wang Y, Sheng D, Xu W, Cao G (2016) Examination of the dyeing properties of pigment printing fabrics in a water-ethanol mixed solvent. Carbohydr Polym 153:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dries DM, Gomand SV, Goderis B, Delcour JA (2014) Structural and thermal transitions during the conversion from native to granular cold-water swelling maize starch. Carbohydr Polym 114:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Siepmann J, Peppas NA (2001) Modeling of drug release from delivery systems based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Adv Drug Deliver Rev 48:139–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jerobin JR, Sureshkumar RS, Anjali CH, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N (2012) Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion for controlled release of Aza-A. Carbohydr Polym 90:1750–1756CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and TechnologyThammasat UniversityKnongluangThailand

Personalised recommendations