Journal of Network and Systems Management

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1104–1124 | Cite as

CAR: Coding-Aware Opportunistic Routing for Unicast Traffic in Wireless Mesh Networks

  • Hongquan Liu
  • Hongfeng Yang
  • Yehua Wang
  • Bing Wang
  • Yuantao GuEmail author


An intermediate node in an inter-flow network coding scheme needs to know exactly which are the previous hop and next hop of a packet before coding. It is difficult to incorporate inter-flow network coding into opportunistic routing (OR) because the next hop of a packet in OR can’t be determined in advance. Coding-aware opportunistic routing (CAR) is proposed in this paper to address this problem on fixed wireless mesh networks (WMNs). Meanwhile, it aims to maximize the number of native packets coded in each single transmission. It dynamically selects a route for a given flow according to the real-time coding opportunities. There are no control packets in CAR, which greatly reduces the overhead costs. CAR gives the coded packet that consists of a larger number of native packets with a smaller forwarding delay. The forwarder with the largest number of native packets coded together is ultimately selected to send data. Simulations demonstrate that CAR achieves significantly better throughput gains and derives a reasonable end-to-end delay in both cross topology and mesh topology under both transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP) traffic, as explained below. CAR achieves more than 35 % throughput improvement under TCP traffic and more than 15 % throughput improvement under UDP traffic, compared to other state-of-art protocols in cross topology, respectively. CAR also provides a several-fold increase in throughput in a large scale network (mesh topology). In a word, CAR significantly improves network performance of a WMN.


Network coding Opportunistic routing Unicast traffic Throughput gain Transmission delay Transmission control protocol User datagram protocol Wireless mesh networks 



This work was supported by the State Key Program of National Nature Science Foundation of China No. U0835003, 60872087.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongquan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongfeng Yang
    • 1
  • Yehua Wang
    • 1
  • Bing Wang
    • 1
  • Yuantao Gu
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.BeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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