Influence of Specimen Velocity on the Leakage Signal in Magnetic Flux Leakage Type Nondestructive Testing


We investigate the influence of the specimen velocity on the magnetic flux leakage with the aim of selecting the optimum sensor locations. Parametric numerical simulations where the specimen velocity was in the range [0.1–20] m/s were carried out. As the specimen velocity is increased, the magnetic field varies from being symmetrical to being asymmetric. For the radial magnetic induction \(B_z\), the position at which the maximum difference between the minimum and maximum signal moves from the centre of the bridge towards the direction of the specimen movement. For the axial magnetic induction \(B_y\), the specimen velocity influence is dependent on the sensor location and a signal-velocity independent region was discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Buncefield Major Incident Investigation Board. The Buncefield incident 11 December 2005. The final report of the Major Incident Investigation Board, 2008

  2. 2.

    Sun, Y., Kang, Y.: Magnetic mechanisms of the magnetic flux leakage nondestructive testing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 184104 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Dobmann, G., Holler, P.: Physical Analysis Methods of Magnetic Flux Leakage. Academic press, New York (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Niikura, S., Kameari, A.: Analysis of eddy current and force in conductors with motion. IEEE Trans. Magn. 28(2), 1450–1453 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Shin, Y.: Numerical prediction of operating conditions for magnetic flux leakage inspection of moving steel sheets. IEEE Trans. Magn. 33(2), 2127–2130 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Katragadda, G., Sun, Y.S., Load, W., Udipa, L.: Velocity Effect and Their Minimization in MFL Inspection of Pipelines: a Numerical Study. Plenum Press, New York (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Wang, P., Gao, Y., Tian, G., Wang, H.: Velocity effect analysis of dynamic magnetization in high speed magnetic flux leakage inspection. NDT&E Int. 64, 7–12 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Li, Y., Tian, G.Y., Ward, S.: Numerical simulation on magnetic flux leakage evaluation at high speed. NDT&E Int. 39, 367–373 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Park, G.S., Park, S.H.: Analysis of the velocity-induced eddy current in MFL type NDT. IEEE Trans. Magn. 40(2), 663–666 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Katragadda, G., Lord, W., Sun, Y.S., Udpa, S., Udpa, L.: Alternative magnetic flux leakage modalities for pipeline inspection. IEEE Trans. Magn. 32(3), 1581–1584 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Park, G.S., Park, E.S.: Experiment and simulation study of 3D magnetic field sensing for defect characterisation. In: Proceedings of the 12 \(^{th}\) Chinese Automation & computing Society conference in the UK, Loughborough, England 2006

  12. 12.

    ANSOFT Corporation. Maxwell V14.0 Manual; 2010

  13. 13.

    Shin, Y.K., Lord, W.: Numerical modelling of moving prove effects for electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation. IEEE Trans. Magn. 29(2), 1865–1868 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Mandayan, S., Udpa, L., Udpa, S.S., Lord, W.: Invariance transformations for magnetic flux leakage signals. IEEE Trans. Magn. 32(3), 1576–1580 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kikuchi, H., Sato, K., Shimizu, I., Kamada, Y., Kobayashi, S.: Feasibility study of application of MFL to monitoring of wall thinning under reinforcing plates in nuclear power plants. IEEE Trans. Magn. 47(10), 3963–3966 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge Advanced Sustainable Manufacturing Technologies (ASTUTE) part-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the Welsh Government. The authors are grateful to Professor Guiyun Tian, for fruitful discussion with him during the conduct of this work. The authors would also like to thank the referees for their reports.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lintao Zhang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, L., Belblidia, F., Cameron, I. et al. Influence of Specimen Velocity on the Leakage Signal in Magnetic Flux Leakage Type Nondestructive Testing. J Nondestruct Eval 34, 6 (2015).

Download citation


  • Nondestructive testing
  • Magnetic flux leakage
  • Specimen velocity
  • Peak to peak value