The aims of this paper are to demonstrate that ice can be used as a suitable impactor to excite the acoustic modes in concrete associated with delaminations and to compare ice sphere impacts with traditional steel ball impacts. Simultaneous acoustic recordings and high-speed photography of representative low-velocity impacts with parametric analysis compare impact characteristics of steel balls and ice spheres on intact and delaminated concrete. These results agree qualitatively with Hertzian contact theory for low-velocity impacts. Excitation of concrete using continuous impacts of ice spheres of multiple sizes and a frequency analysis allows the acoustic signature of delaminations to be classified. The use of ice as an impactor for excitation of acoustic modes in concrete is thus demonstrated.
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The authors thank the Ira A. Fulton College of Engineering at Brigham Young University for supporting this work, Provo River Constructors for donating the slab, and Raba Kistner Engineering Consultants, Inc. for arranging access to the construction site.
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Mazzeo, B.A., Patil, A.N., Hurd, R.C. et al. Air-Coupled Impact-Echo Delamination Detection in Concrete Using Spheres of Ice for Excitation. J Nondestruct Eval 33, 317–326 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10921-013-0215-7