Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 121–134 | Cite as

Parametric Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals for Evaluating Damage in Composites Using a PVDF Film Sensor

Article

Abstract

With the increased utilization of advanced composites in strategic industries, the concept of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) with its inherent advantages is gaining ground over the conventional methods of NDE and NDI. The most attractive feature of this concept is on-line evaluation using embedded sensors. Consequently, development of methodologies with identification of appropriate sensors such as PVDF films becomes the key for exploiting the new concept. And, of the methods used for on-line evaluation acoustic emission has been most effective. Thus, Acoustic Emission (AE) generated during static tensile loading of glass fiber reinforced plastic composites was monitored using a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film sensor. The frequency response of the film sensor was obtained with pencil lead breakage tests to choose the appropriate band of operation. The specimen considered for the experiments were chosen to characterize the differences in the operation of the failure mechanisms through AE parametric analysis. The results of the investigations can be characterized using AE parameter indicating that a PVDF film sensor was effective as an AE sensor used in structural health monitoring on-line.

Keywords

PVDF acoustic emission composites 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Luo and S. Hanagud, PVDF film sensor and its applications in damage detection, J. Aerospace Eng. 12(1), pp. 23–30 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. G. Swartz and J. D. Plummer, On the generation of high-frequency acoustic energy with polyvinylidene fluoride, IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrasonics SU-27(6), pp. 295–303 (1980).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. A. Hutchins and G. Hayward, Related field of ultrasonic transducer, Physical Acoustics, Vol. XIX, Academic Press, New York, pp.1–80.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Bar-Cohen, X. Tianji, and L. Shyh-Shiuh, Polymer piezoelectric transducers for ultrasonic NDE, NDTnet, Vol. 1(09), September 1996.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. K. Lee and C. K. Moon, Model sensors/actuators, J. Appl. Mech. 57, pp. 434–441 (1990).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. V. Hanagud, S. G. Savanur, G. L. Nageshbabu, C. C. Won, and A. V. Srinivasan, Model analysis with PVDF films and piezo ceramic transducers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers Aerospace Division Publication AD v-24 ASME, New York, pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. F. Cambell, E. G. Vanderheiden, L. A. Martinez, D. S. Cairns, and M. G. Abdallah, A multi-purpose sensor for composite laminates based on a piezo-electric film, J. Composite Mater. 26(3), pp. 334–349 (1992).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Stiffler and E. G. Henneke, The application of polyvinylidene fluoride as an acoustic emission transducer for fibrous composite materials, Mater. Eval. 41(7), pp. 956–960 (1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Gaul and S. Hurlebaus, Determination of the impact on a plate by piezoelectric film sensors, Arch. Appl. Mech. 69, pp 691–701 (1999).MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. A. Hamstad, A review: Acoustic emission, a tool for composite-materials studies, Exp. Mech. (March), 26(1), pp. 7–13 (1986).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. D. Sims, G. D. Dean, B. E. Read, and B. C. Western, Assessment of damage in GRP laminates by stress wave emission and dynamic mechanical measurements, J. Mater. Sci. (JMTSA) 12(11), pp. 2329–2342 (1977).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Barre and M. L. Benzeggagh, On the use of acoustic emission to investigate damage mechanisms in glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene, Composites Sci. Technol. 52, pp. 369–376 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. M. Ely and E. K. Hill, Longitudinal splitting and fiber breakage characterization in graphite/epoxy using acoustic emission data, Mater. Eval. 53(2), pp. 288–294 (1995).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. C. Barnes and G. Ramirez, Acoustic emission testing of carbon fiber composite offshore drilling raiser, Proceedings of the AECM Conference, San Antonio, TX, pp. 13–22 (1998).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Huguet, N. Godin, R. Gaertner, L. Salmon, and D. Villard, Use of acoustic emission to identify damage modes in glass fiber reinforced polyester, Composite Sci. Technol. 62, pp. 1433–1444 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. N. Bar, M. R. Bhat, and C. R. L. Murthy, Identification of failure modes in GFRP using P VDF film sensor: Artificial Neural Network Approach, Composite Struct. 65(2), pp. 231–237, (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. A. Hamstad, On use of piezoelectric polymers as wide band acoustic emission displacement sensors for composites, Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Coustic Emissions from Composite Materials (AECM-5), The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc., Sundsvall, Sweden, pp. 111–119, 1995.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. R. Wadim, Acoustic Emission Application, Dunegan Endevco, San Juan capistrano, CA, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. R. Bhat, M. A. Majeed, and C. R. L. Murthy, “Characterization of fatigue damage in unidirectional GFRP composite through acoustic emission signal analysis,” NDT&E Int. 27(1), pp. 27–32 (1994).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Johnson and P. Gudmundson, Broad-band transient recording and characterization of acoustic emission events in composite laminates, Composites Sci. Technol. 60, pp. 2803–2818 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Johnson, Waveform based clustering and classification of AE transients in composite laminates using principal component analysis, NDT&E Int. 35, pp. 367–376 (2002).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Johnson and P. Gudmundson, Experimental and theoretical characterization of acoustic emission transients in composite laminates, Composites Sci. Technol. 61, pp. 1367–1378 (2001).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations