Advertisement

Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 51–55 | Cite as

Weather and Smiling Contagion: A Quasi Experiment with the Smiling Sunshine

  • Nicolas GuéguenEmail author
Brief Report

Abstract

Studies have shown that pleasant weather conditions (namely, sunshine) favor positive social relationships and improve moods. However, the effect of sunshine on one nonverbal expression that facilitates social relationships (namely, smiling) has never been studied. In a field experiment, men and women walking alone in the street were passed by a male or a female confederate who displayed a smile to the passersby. The contagion effect of smiling was measured. The study was carried out on days that were evaluated as being either sunny or cloudy, but precaution was taken to control the temperature and not to solicit participants when it rained. It was found that the display of a smile results in a smile more often on sunny days. The positive mood induced by the sun may explain such results.

Keywords

Weather Sun Smile Relationship 

References

  1. Bizman, A., Yinin, Y., Ronco, B., & Schachar, T. (1980). Regaining self-esteem through helping behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 105, 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cunningham, M. R. (1979). Weather, mood, and helping behavior: Quasi experiments with the sunshine Samaritan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1947–1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Denissen, J. J. A., Butalid, L., Penke, L., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2008). The effects of weather on daily mood: A multilevel approach. Emotion, 8, 662–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Forgas, J. P. (1997). Affect and strategic communication: The effects of mood on the production and interpretation of verbal requests. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 28, 145–173.Google Scholar
  5. Forgas, J. P. (1998). Asking nicely? The effects of mood on responding to more or less polite requests. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guéguen, N., & Fischer-Lokou, J. (2004). The effect of hitchhikers’ smile. Psychological Reports, 94, 756–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harris, M. B., & Smith, R. J. (1975). Mood and helping. The Journal of Social Psychology, 91, 215–221.Google Scholar
  8. Hess, U., Banse, R., & Kappas, A. (1995). The intensity of facial expression is determined by underlying affective state and social situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 280–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hirshleifer, D., & Shumway, T. (2003). Good day sunshine: Stock returns and the weather. Journal of Finance, 58, 1009–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Job, S. (1987). The effect of mood on helping behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Keller, M. C., Fredrickson, B. L., Ybarra, O., Côté, S., Johnson, K., Mikels, J., et al. (2005). A warm heart and a clear head: The contingent effects of weather on mood and cognition. Psychological Science, 16, 724–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lockard, J. S., McVittie, R. I., & Isaac, L. M. (1977). Functional significance of the affiliative smile. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 367–370.Google Scholar
  13. Rind, B. (1996). Effect of beliefs about weather conditions on tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rind, B. (1997). Effect of interest arousal on compliance with a request for help. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rind, B., & Strohmetz, D. (2001). Effect of beliefs about future weather conditions on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2160–2164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Simonsohn, U. (2007). Clouds make nerds look good: Field evidence of the influence of incidental factors on decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 143–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Simonsohn, U. (2010). Weather to go to college. Economic Journal, 120, 270–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Solomon, H., Zener-Solomon, L., Arnone, M., Maur, B., Reda, R., & Roth, E. (1981). Anonymity and helping. The Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walsh, D. G., & Hewitt, J. (1985). Giving men the come-on: Effect of eye contact and smiling in a bar environment. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 873–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weyant, J. (1978). Effects of mood states, costs, and benefits of helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1169–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut de Management de Bretagne-Sud (IMAMS)Université de Bretagne-SudVannesFrance

Personalised recommendations