Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 3–24 | Cite as

Moving Smiles: The Role of Dynamic Components for the Perception of the Genuineness of Smiles

  • Eva Krumhuber
  • Arvid KappasEmail author


Three experiments were conducted to examine whether the temporal dynamics of Duchenne-smiles influenced the perception of smile authenticity. Realistic computer-generated Duchenne-smiles that varied in their onset- and offset-durations (Experiment 1), or only in their offset-duration (Experiment 2), or in both their onset- and apex-durations (Experiment 3), were created using Poser 4 software. Perceived genuineness varied monotonically with the duration of each manipulated dynamic component. The results are in accordance with Ekman and Friesen’s (1982) observations regarding the duration of smiles of enjoyment, which suggest that each dynamic component has a distinct duration range that can influence the perceived genuineness of smiles.


dynamics emotions facial expressions perception of emotions 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiff University, University BremenUK
  2. 2.School of Humanities and Social SciencesInternational University BremenBremenGermany

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