Effectiveness of Psycho-Physiological Portable Devices to Analyse Effect of Ergogenic Aids in Military Population

  • Montaña Diaz-Manzano
  • José Juan Robles-Pérez
  • Ketty Herrera-Mendoza
  • Beliña Herrera-Tapias
  • Jesús Fernández-Lucas
  • Susana Aznar-Lain
  • Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Emergent Visualization Systems in Biomedical Sciences (TEEM 2017)


Caffeine is one of the ergogenic substances most used by warfighters in current operation areas, but the effect on the organic response and operational performed is already poor knowledge. This research aimed to study the acute effect of 400 mg of caffeine monohydrate on the psycho-physiological response and rifle marksmanship of warfighters during a close quarter combat simulation. We analysed parameter of heart rate, blood lactate, cortical arousal, state anxiety and marksmanship of 20 Spanish Army veteran warfighters before and after a close quarter combat simulation in a double-blind procedure, also a correlation analysis was conducted between all the study variables. Marksmanship of warfighters did not improve with the caffeine ingestion, but it produced an increase in blood lactate concentration (caffeine: 1.9 ± 0.5 vs. 9.2 ± 1.1 mmol.l−1; placebo: 1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 6.9 ± 2.2 mmol.l−1), cortical arousal (% of change: caffeine: 2.51; placebo: −1.96) and heart rate (caffeine: 80.0 ± 7.2 vs. 172.9 ± 28.2 bpm; placebo: 79.3 ± 6.4 vs. 154.0 ± 26.8 bpm). In addition, higher heart rate values correlated negatively with marksmanship in close quarter combat. We concluded that caffeine intake did not improve the warfighters rifle marksmanship in close quarter combat possibly due to the increase in the physiological response.


Cortical arousal Stress Military Heart rate Lactate Anxiety 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest


Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Montaña Diaz-Manzano
    • 1
    • 2
  • José Juan Robles-Pérez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ketty Herrera-Mendoza
    • 4
  • Beliña Herrera-Tapias
    • 5
  • Jesús Fernández-Lucas
    • 6
    • 7
  • Susana Aznar-Lain
    • 8
  • Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 9
  1. 1.Studies Centre in Applied Combat (CESCA)ToledoSpain
  2. 2.Applied Psychophysiological Research GroupEuropean University of MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Light Forces Head Quarter of the Spanish ArmyMadridSpain
  4. 4.Grupo de Investigación en Cultura, Educación y SociedadUniversidad de la CostaBarranquillaColombia
  5. 5.Grupo de Investigación en Derecho, Política y SociedadUniversidad de la CostaBarranquillaColombia
  6. 6.Applied Biotechnology GroupEuropean University of MadridMadridSpain
  7. 7.Grupo de Investigación en Desarrollo Agroindustrial SostenibleUniversidad de la CostaBarranquillaColombia
  8. 8.PAFS Research Group, Faculty of Sports SciencesUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaToledoSpain
  9. 9.Faculty of Sport Sciences, Department of Sport ScienceMadridSpain

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