Classification of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Eight-Layer Convolutional Neural Network with Leaky Rectified Linear Unit and Max Pooling

  • Shui-Hua Wang
  • Preetha Phillips
  • Yuxiu Sui
  • Bin Liu
  • Ming Yang
  • Hong Cheng
Image & Signal Processing
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Advanced Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing in Medical Imaging


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disease. The goal of this study is to provide a new computer-vision based technique to detect it in an efficient way. The brain-imaging data of 98 AD patients and 98 healthy controls was collected using data augmentation method. Then, convolutional neural network (CNN) was used, CNN is the most successful tool in deep learning. An 8-layer CNN was created with optimal structure obtained by experiences. Three activation functions (AFs): sigmoid, rectified linear unit (ReLU), and leaky ReLU. The three pooling-functions were also tested: average pooling, max pooling, and stochastic pooling. The numerical experiments demonstrated that leaky ReLU and max pooling gave the greatest result in terms of performance. It achieved a sensitivity of 97.96%, a specificity of 97.35%, and an accuracy of 97.65%, respectively. In addition, the proposed approach was compared with eight state-of-the-art approaches. The method increased the classification accuracy by approximately 5% compared to state-of-the-art methods.


Alzheimer’s disease Convolutional neural network Leaky rectified linear unit Max pooling Data augmentation Activation function 



This paper was supported by Open fund of Key Laboratory of Guangxi High Schools Complex System and Computational Intelligence (2016CSCI01), Natural Science Foundation of China (61602250) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150983), and National Institutes of Health (P50 AG05681, P01 AG03991, R01 AG021910, P50 MH071616, U24 RR021382, R01 MH56584).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no conflicts of interest to disclose with regard to the subject matter of this paper.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New YorkCUNYNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.West Virginia School of Osteopathic MedicineLewisburgUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryAffiliated Nanjing Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyZhong-Da Hospital of Southeast UniversityNanjingChina
  6. 6.Department of RadiologyChildren’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  7. 7.Department of NeurologyFirst Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical UniversityNanjingChina

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