Journal of Medical Systems

, 42:28 | Cite as

Key Performance Indicators to Measure Improvement After Implementation of Total Laboratory Automation Abbott Accelerator a3600

  • Marijana MilerEmail author
  • Nora Nikolac Gabaj
  • Lora Dukic
  • Ana-Maria Simundic
Systems-Level Quality Improvement
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Systems-Level Quality Improvement


The aim of the study was to estimate improvement of work efficiency in the laboratory after implementation of total laboratory automation (TLA) by Abbott Accelerator a3600 in the laboratory with measuring different key performance indicators (KPIs) before and after TLA implementation. The objective was also to recommend steps for defining KPIs in other laboratories. For evaluation of improvement 10 organizational and/or technical KPIs were defined for all phases of laboratory work and measured before (November 2013) and after (from 2015 to 2017) TLA implementation. Out of 10 defined KPIs, 9 were successfully measured and significantly improved. Waiting time for registration of samples in the LIS was significantly reduced from 16 (9–28) to 9 (6–16) minutes after TLA (P < 0.001). After TLA all tests were performed at core biochemistry analyzers which significantly reduced walking distance for sample management (for more than 800 m per worker) and number of tube touches (for almost 50%). Analyzers downtime and engagement time for analyzers maintenance was reduced for 50 h and 28 h per month, respectively. TLA eliminated manual dilution of samples with extreme results with sigma values increment from 3.4 to >6 after TLA. Although median turnaround time TAT for potassium and troponin was higher (for approximately 20 min), number of outliers with TAT >60 min expressed as sigma values were satisfying (>3). Implementation of the TLA improved the most of the processes in our laboratory with 9 out of 10 properly defined and measured KPIs. With proper planning and defining of KPIs, every laboratory could measure changes in daily workflow.


Key performance indicators (KPI) Productivity Total laboratory automation (TLA) Quality 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Author Marijana Miler declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Nora Nikolac declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Lora Dukic declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Ana-Maria Simundic declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Not applicable.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical ChemistrySestre Milosrdnice University Hospital CenterZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Department of Medical Laboratory DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital “Sveti Duh”ZagrebCroatia

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