Skip to main content

Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices

Abstract

In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD’s battery life.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. Denning, T., Fu, K., and Kohno, T.: Absence makes the heart grow fonder: New directions for implantable medical device security. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Hot Topics in Security, ser. HOTSEC’08. Berkeley, CA, USA: USENIX Association, pp. 5:1–5:7, 2008. [Online]. Available: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1496671.1496676

  2. Xu, F., Qin, Z., Tan, C.C., Wang, B., and Li, Q.: Imdguard: Securing implantable medical devices with the external wearable guardian. In: 2011 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1862–1870, 2011

  3. Zhang, M., Raghunathan, A., and Jha, N., Medmon: Securing medical devices through wireless monitoring and anomaly detection. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 7(6):871–881, 2013.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Gollakota, S., Hassanieh, H., Ransford, B., Katabi, D., and Fu, K., They can hear your heartbeats: Non-invasive security for implantable medical devices. SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4):2–13, 2011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Halperin, D., Heydt-Benjamin, T., Ransford, B., Clark, S., Defend, B., Morgan, W., Fu, K., Kohno, T., and Maisel, W.: Pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators: Software radio attacks and zero-power defenses. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), pp. 129–142, 2008

  6. Zhang, M., Raghunathan, A., Jha, N.: Trustworthiness of medical devices and body area networks. Proc. IEEE 102(8):1174–1188, 2014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. MICS Medical Implant Communication Services, FCC 47CFR95.601–95.673 Subpart E/I Rules for MedRadio Services, Federal Communications Commission Std

  8. ITU-R Recommendation RS.1346: Sharing between the meteorological aids service and medical implant communication systems (MICS) operating in the mobile service in the frequency band 401–406 MHz, 1998., International Telecommunications Union. Std

  9. Liu, Y.-H., Tung, C.-J., and Lin, T.-H.: A low-power asymmetrical mics wireless interface and transceiver design for medical imaging. In: IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), pp. 162–165, 2006

  10. Zhu, K., Haider, M., Yuan, S., and Islam, S.: A sub-1 ua low-power fsk modulator for biomedical sensor circuits. In: IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), pp. 265–268, 2010

  11. Federal Communication Commission (FCC): FCC 12-54. Amendment of the Commissions Rules to Provide Spectrum for the Operation of Medical Body Area Networks. First Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Federal Communication Commission Std, 2012

  12. Recommendation ITU-R SM.1896 (11/2011) Frequency ranges for global or regional harmonization of short-range devices, ITU Std

  13. Johansson, A.J.: Wireless communication with medical implants: Antennas and propagation, p. 173, 2004

  14. Hall, P.S., and Hao, Y.: Antennas and propagation for body centric communications. In: 2006 First European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1–7, 2006

  15. Bai, Q., Swaisaenyakorn, S., Lee, H.-J., Ford, K.L., Batchelor, J.C., and Langley, R.J., Investigation of a switchable textile communication system on the human body. Electronics 3(3):491, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9292/3/3/491.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Tak, J., Kwon, K., Kim, S., and Choi, J., Dual-band on-body repeater antenna for In-on-On WBAN applications. Int. J. Antennas Propag. 2013:12, 2013. /https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/107251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Conway, G.A., and Scanlon, W.G., Antennas for over-body-surface communication at 2.45 ghz. Int. J. Antennas Propag. 57(4):844–855, 2009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Wang, Q., Hahnel, R., Zhang, H., and Plettemeier, D.: On-body directional antenna design for in-body uwb wireless communication. In: 2012 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), pp. 1011–1015, 2012

  19. Elias, N.A., Samsuri, N.A., Rahim, M.K.A., Othman, N., and Jalil, M.E.: Effects of human body and antenna orientation on dipole textile antenna performance and sar. In: 2012 IEEE asia-pacific conference on applied electromagnetics (APACE), pp. 132–136, 2012

  20. de Alwis, T: Ellipses, normal lines and related locus problems, Preprint, 1999

  21. Daly, M.P., and Bernhard, J.T.: Directional modulation and coding in arrays. In: 2011 IEEE international symposium on antennas and propagation (APSURSI), pp. 1984–1987, 2011

  22. Shibata, O., Koyama, H., and Sawaya, T.: Small size, high gain and high f/b ratio patch antenna arranging parasitic element on the back. In: 2007 European conference on wireless technologies, pp. 264–267, 2007

  23. Namdar, M., Ilhan, H., and Durak-Ata, L.: Optimal detection thresholds in spectrum sensing with receiver diversity. In: Wireless Personal Communications, pp. 63–81, 2016

  24. Namdar, M., and Basgumus, A.: Outage Performance Analysis of Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks with Decode and Forward Relaying. In: Book chapter in Cognitive Radio (Editor: T. Trump), InTech, ISBN: 978-953-51-3338-4, pp. 25–38 , 2017

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Selman Kulaç.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interests

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Mobile & Wireless Health

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kulaç, S. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices. J Med Syst 41, 172 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-017-0813-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-017-0813-5

Keywords

  • Wireless IMDs
  • IMD telemetry communications
  • Physical layer security
  • Security for IMDs
  • Full-duplex security