Skip to main content

Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL

Abstract

Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to “human error” [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any ‘human errors’ in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    E. S. Martin, C. D. Nugent, R. R. Bond, D. D. Finlay, and S. Martin, “Evaluation of the barthel index presented on paper and developed digitally,” in International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics (ICOST), 2014, pp. 14–17.

  2. 2.

    McDowell, S. E., Ferner, H. S., and Ferner, R. E., The pathophysiology of medication errors: how and where they arise. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 67(6):605–13, 2009.

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Fordyce, J., Blank, F. S. J., Pekow, P., Smithline, H. A., Ritter, G., Gehlbach, S., Benjamin, E., and Henneman, P. L., Errors in a busy emergency department. Ann. Emerg. Med 42(3):324–33, 2003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    F. Mahoney and D. Barthel, “Functional Evaluation: The Barthel Index,” Md. State Med. J., no. 12, pp. 61–65, 1965.

  5. 5.

    Füzéki, E., and Banzer, W., Activities of Daily Living and Health. Public Heal. Forum 21(2):4.e1–4.e4, 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Anonymous, “Title of measure : Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs),” 2010.

  7. 7.

    Roley, S. S., DeLany, J. V., Barrows, C. J., Brownrigg, S., Honaker, D., Sava, D. I., Talley, V., Voelkerding, K., Amini, D. A., Smith, E., Toto, P., King, S., Lieberman, D., Baum, M. C., Cohen, E. S., Cleveland, P. A. M., and Youngstrom, M. J., Occupational therapy practice framework: domain & practice, 2nd edition. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 62(6):625–83, 2008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Naeem, U., Bigham, J., and Wang, J., Recognising Activities of Daily Life Using Hierarchical Plans. Smart Sens. Context LNCS 4793:175–189, 2007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Rockwood, K., The Measuring, meaning and importance of activities of daily living (ADLs) as an outcome. Int. Psychogeriatrics 19(3):467–482, 2007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Hartigan, I., and O’Mahony, D., The Barthel Index: comparing inter-rater reliability between nurses and doctors in an older adult rehabilitation unit. Appl. Nurs. Res. 24(1):e1–e7, 2011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Collin, C., Wade, D., Davies, S., and Horne, V., The Barthel ADL Index: A standard measure of disability. Int. Disabil. Stud. 2(10):64–67, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Anonymous, “Barthel Index (BI),” Sydney, 2006.

  13. 13.

    Quinn, T. J., Langhorne, P., and Stott, D. J., Barthel index for stroke trials: development, properties, and application. Stroke. 42(4):1146–51, 2011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M. A. Bochicchio, A. Longo, and L. Vaira, “Extending Web applications with 3D features,” 2011 13th IEEE Int. Symp. Web Syst. Evol., pp. 93–96, Sep. 2011.

  15. 15.

    van Oosterom, A., and Oostendorp, T. F., ECGSIM: an interactive tool for studying the genesis of QRST waveforms. Heart 90(2):165–8, 2004.

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Bond, R. R., Finlay, D. D., Nugent, C. D., Moore, G., and Guldenring, D., A simulation tool for visualizing and studying the effects of electrode misplacement on the 12-lead electrocardiogram. J. Electrocardiol. 44(4):439–44, 2011.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    E. S. Martin, D. D. Finlay, C. D. Nugent, R. R. Bond, and C. J. Breen, “An interactive tool for the evaluation of ECG visualisation formats,” in Computers in Cardiology, 2013, pp. 779–782.

  18. 18.

    D. Mukerji, “Developing apps with HTML5: benefits and challenges,” 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.kony.com/resources/blog/developing-apps-html5-benefits-and-challenges. [Accessed: 27-Mar-2015].

  19. 19.

    Ahlgren, P., Jarneving, B., and Rousseau, R., Requirements for a cocitation similarity measure, with special reference to Pearson’s correlation coefficient. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 54(6):550–560, 2003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Anonymous, “Data Analysis - Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient.” [Online]. Available: http://learntech.uwe.ac.uk/da/Default.aspx?pageid=1442. [Accessed: 12-Jan-2015].

  21. 21.

    F. Galton, “Regression towards mediocrity in hereditary stature,” J. Anthropol. Inst. Gt. Britain Irel., no. 15, pp. 246–263, 1886.

  22. 22.

    K. Pearson, “Notes on Regression and Inheritance in the case of two parents,” in Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 1895, no. 58, pp. 240–242.

  23. 23.

    Stigler, S., Francis Galton’s Account of the Invention of Correlation. Stat. Sci. 4(2):73–79, 1989.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    van der Putten, J. J., Hobart, J. C., Freeman, J. A., and Thompson, A. J., Measuring change in disability after inpatient rehabilitation: comparison of the responsiveness of the Barthel index and the Functional Independence Measure. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 66(4):480–4, 1999.

    PubMed Central  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elizabeth Martin.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Education & Training.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Martin, E., Nugent, C., Bond, R. et al. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL. J Med Syst 39, 93 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-015-0293-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Activity of daily living
  • Barthel index
  • Digital healthcare provision
  • Digital ADL