Journal of Scientific Computing

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 330–371 | Cite as

High Spatial Order Energy Stable FDTD Methods for Maxwell’s Equations in Nonlinear Optical Media in One Dimension

  • Vrushali A. Bokil
  • Yingda Cheng
  • Yan Jiang
  • Fengyan Li
  • Puttha SakkaplangkulEmail author


In this paper, we consider electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in nonlinear optical media in one spatial dimension. We model the EM wave propagation by the time-dependent Maxwell’s equations coupled with a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the response of the medium to the EM waves. The nonlinearity in the ODEs describes the instantaneous electronic Kerr response and the residual Raman molecular vibrational response. The ODEs also include the single resonance linear Lorentz dispersion. For such model, we will design and analyze fully discrete finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods that have arbitrary (even) order in space and second order in time. It is challenging to achieve provable stability for fully discrete methods, and this depends on the choices of temporal discretizations of the nonlinear terms. In Bokil et al. (J Comput Phys 350:420–452, 2017), we proposed novel modifications of second-order leap-frog and trapezoidal temporal schemes in the context of discontinuous Galerkin methods to discretize the nonlinear terms in this Maxwell model. Here, we continue this work by developing similar time discretizations within the framework of FDTD methods. More specifically, we design fully discrete modified leap-frog FDTD methods which are proved to be stable under appropriate CFL conditions. These method can be viewed as an extension of the Yee-FDTD scheme to this nonlinear Maxwell model. We also design fully discrete trapezoidal FDTD methods which are proved to be unconditionally stable. The performance of the fully discrete FDTD methods are demonstrated through numerical experiments involving kink, antikink waves and third harmonic generation in soliton propagation.


Maxwell’s equations Nonlinear dispersion High order FDTD Energy stability Soliton propagation 



The authors would like to thank ICERM’s Collaborate@ICERM program as well as the Research in Pairs program at MFO, Oberwolfach in Germany for their support of co-authors Bokil, Cheng and Li.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vrushali A. Bokil
    • 1
  • Yingda Cheng
    • 2
  • Yan Jiang
    • 2
  • Fengyan Li
    • 3
  • Puttha Sakkaplangkul
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mathematical SciencesRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

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