Interspecific Chromosome Painting Provides Clues to the Ancestral Karyotype of the New World Monkey Genus Aotus
- 182 Downloads
The Neotropical monkey genus Aotus (owl or night monkeys) are among the most karyological diverse primates of the world. Their diploid numbers range from 2n = 46 to 58, but even owl monkeys with the same diploid number may have radically different karyotypes. This karyotypic variability has provided precious information for taxonomists and has a potential for aiding phylogenetic analysis of these primates. However, up to now only three out of 11 species have been analyzed with molecular cytogenetic methods. Here, we report on a fourth species, A. infulatus. Females have a diploid number of 2n = 50 while males, due to a Y/autosome translocation, have 49 chromosomes. We provide a complete map of chromosome homology between humans and A. infulatus. Comparisons with previous reports allowed us to propose a putative ancestral karyotype of the genus (2n = 52) and to deduce the rearrangements that were involved in the origin of each species chromosome complement. Integration of chromosome painting and banding analysis suggests at least three chromosomes have evolutionary new centromeres that appeared during the divergence of these four owl monkey species.
KeywordsChromosome evolution New World monkeys Phylogenetics Owl monkeys
This work was supported by a grant from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq Process 4072622013-0) to MS and RS and a PRIN (Programmi di Ricerca Scientifica di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale: 2012TZF8HL_003) to RS. NPA was the recipient of a doctoral fellowship from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Capozzi O, Archidiacono N, Lorusso N, Stanyon R, Rocchi M (2016) The 14/15 association as a paradigmatic example of tracing karyotype evolution in New World monkeys. Chromosoma 125:747–756Google Scholar
- de Oliveira EHC, Neusser M, Müller S (2012) Chromosome evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini). Cytogenet Genome Res 137:259–272Google Scholar
- Hershkovitz P (1983) Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy. Am J Primatol 4:209–243Google Scholar
- Kiesling NMJ, Yi SV, Xu K, Sperone FG, Wildman DE (2014) The tempo and mode of New World monkey evolution and biogeography in the context of phylogenomic analysis. Mol Phylogenet Evol 82:386–399Google Scholar
- Ma NSF, Elliott MW, Morgan L, Miller A, Jones TC (1976) Translocation of Y chromosome to an autosome in the Bolivian owl monkey, Aotus. Am J Phys Anthropol 45:191–202Google Scholar
- Mudry MD, Nieves M, Bolzán AD (2007) Chromosomal localization of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequence in eight species of New World primates (Neotropical primates, Platyrrhini). Cytogenet Genome Res 119:221–224Google Scholar
- Osterholz M, Walter L, Roos C (2009) Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera. Mol Phylogenet Evol 50:507–513Google Scholar
- Prakhongcheep O, Chaiprasertsri N, Terada S, Hirai Y, Srikulnath K, Hirai H, Kogo A (2013) Heterochromatin blocks constituting the entire short arms of acrocentric chromosomes of Azara’s owl monkey: formation processes inferred from chromosomal locations. DNA Res 20:461–470Google Scholar
- Springer MS, Meredith RW, Gatesy J, Emerling CA, Park J, Rabosky DL, Stadler T, Steiner C, Ryder OA, Janecka JE, Fisher CA, Murphy WJ (2012) Macroevolutionary dynamics and historical biogeography of primate diversification inferred from a species supermatrix. PLoS One 7(11): e49521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stanyon R, Bigoni F, Slaby T, Muller S, Stone G, Bonvicino CR, Neusser M, Seuánez HN (2004) Multi-directional chromosome painting maps homologies between species belonging to three genera of New World monkeys and humans. Chromosoma 113:305–315Google Scholar
- Stanyon R, Garofalo F, Steinberg ER, Capozzi O, Di Marco S, Nieves M, Archidiacono N, Mudry MD (2011) Chromosome painting in two genera of South American monkeys: species identification, conservation, and management. Cytogenetic Genome Res 134:40–50Google Scholar