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Cryogenic amplification of image-charge detection for readout of quantum states of electrons on liquid helium


Accurate detection of quantum states is a vital step in the development of quantum computing. Image-charge detection of quantum states of electrons on liquid helium can potentially be used for the readout of a single-electron qubit; however, low sensitivity due to added noise hinders its usage in high-fidelity and high-bandwidth (BW) applications. One method to improve the readout accuracy and bandwidth is to use cryogenic amplifications near the signal source to minimize the effects of stray capacitance. We experimentally demonstrate a two-stage amplification scheme with a low power dissipation of \({90}\,\upmu \hbox {W}\) at the first stage located at the still plate of the dilution refrigerator and a high gain of \({40}\,\hbox {dB}\) at the second stage located at the 4 K plate. The good impedance matching between different stages and output devices ensures high BW and constant gain in a wide frequency range. The detected image-charge signals are compared for one-stage and two-stage amplification schemes.

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We acknowledge funding provided by an internal grant from Okinawa Institute of Science Technology (OIST) Graduate University, as well as JST-PRESTO (Grant No. JPMJPR1762) and JSPS KAKENHI (Grant No. 20K15118). We are grateful to V. P. Dvornichenko and A. S. Rybalko for providing technical support.

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Correspondence to Asem Elarabi or Denis Konstantinov.

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Elarabi, A., Kawakami, E. & Konstantinov, D. Cryogenic amplification of image-charge detection for readout of quantum states of electrons on liquid helium. J Low Temp Phys 202, 456–465 (2021).

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  • Cryogenic amplifier
  • Electrons on helium
  • Qubits readout
  • Heterojunction bipolar transistor
  • Low-temperature electronics