Generation and Demolishment Mechanisms of Vapor Bubble Around Hot Tungsten Filament in Superfluid Helium-4


The electric transport IV characteristics of a tungsten filament immersed in superfluid helium are experimentally studied. The forward sweep IV characteristics show an abrupt jump from the linear ohmic regime (C state) to the high-resistance non-ohmic regime (H state). In the H state, the filament is covered with a He gas bubble. In the C state, there is no gas bubble, that is, liquid He directly touches the filament surface. The transitions between these two states exhibit a well-developed hysteresis and bistability. The transition from the H state to the C state occurs at the equilibrium gas–liquid phase transition point, as reported by Date et al. (J Phys Soc Jpn 35(4):1190, 1973), whereas the C-to-H-state transition occurs in the superheat region.

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We are indebted to Professor Ming-Chiang Chung for helpful suggestions and comments. We are grateful to Professor Ben-Li Young for help with setting up the cryogenic apparatus. KK thanks Professor Jenh-Yih Juang for his kind hospitality. We thank Prof. P Leiderer for helpful discussion about imaging bubbles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC, under Grant No. MOST 108-2122-M-009-013. KK was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17H01145 and the Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

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Shih, CC., Huang, MH., Chang, PC. et al. Generation and Demolishment Mechanisms of Vapor Bubble Around Hot Tungsten Filament in Superfluid Helium-4. J Low Temp Phys 202, 418–430 (2021).

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  • Superfluid helium
  • Phase transition
  • Hot tungsten filament
  • Bubble formation