Generation and Demolishment Mechanisms of Vapor Bubble Around Hot Tungsten Filament in Superfluid Helium-4

Abstract

The electric transport IV characteristics of a tungsten filament immersed in superfluid helium are experimentally studied. The forward sweep IV characteristics show an abrupt jump from the linear ohmic regime (C state) to the high-resistance non-ohmic regime (H state). In the H state, the filament is covered with a He gas bubble. In the C state, there is no gas bubble, that is, liquid He directly touches the filament surface. The transitions between these two states exhibit a well-developed hysteresis and bistability. The transition from the H state to the C state occurs at the equilibrium gas–liquid phase transition point, as reported by Date et al. (J Phys Soc Jpn 35(4):1190, 1973), whereas the C-to-H-state transition occurs in the superheat region.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    In thermal counterflow regime, the thermal conductivity is still very high even in the quantum turbulence regime. The temperature gradient (\(\nabla T\)) can be estimated by the power density dependent \(\nabla T\) from Ref. [9]. The maximum \(\nabla T\) in our experiment is 5.4 Kmm\(^{-1}\) under maximum transition power density (0.317 Wmm\(^{-2}\)). By integrating \(\nabla T\) from \(r_1\) to infinity, the temperature different can be obtained as 0.0055 K, which is much smaller compared with the temperature difference within boundary layer.

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Acknowledgements

We are indebted to Professor Ming-Chiang Chung for helpful suggestions and comments. We are grateful to Professor Ben-Li Young for help with setting up the cryogenic apparatus. KK thanks Professor Jenh-Yih Juang for his kind hospitality. We thank Prof. P Leiderer for helpful discussion about imaging bubbles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC, under Grant No. MOST 108-2122-M-009-013. KK was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17H01145 and the Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

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Correspondence to Che-Chi Shih.

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Shih, CC., Huang, MH., Chang, PC. et al. Generation and Demolishment Mechanisms of Vapor Bubble Around Hot Tungsten Filament in Superfluid Helium-4. J Low Temp Phys 202, 418–430 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-020-02546-8

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Keywords

  • Superfluid helium
  • Phase transition
  • Hot tungsten filament
  • Bubble formation