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The Design of the CCAT-prime Epoch of Reionization Spectrometer Instrument

Abstract

The epoch of reionization spectrometer (EoR-Spec) is an instrument module for the Prime-Cam receiver of the 6-m aperture CCAT-prime Telescope at 5600 m in Chile. EoR-Spec will perform 158 \(\upmu \)m [CII] line intensity mapping of star-forming regions at redshifts between 3.5 and 8 (420–210 GHz), tracing the evolution of structure during early galaxy formation. At lower redshifts, EoR-Spec will observe galaxies near the period of peak star formation—when most stars in today’s universe were formed. At higher redshifts, EoR-Spec will trace the late stages of reionization, the early stages of galaxy assembly, and the formation of large-scale, three-dimensional clustering of star-forming galaxies. To achieve its science goals, EoR-Spec will utilize CCAT-prime’s exceptionally low water vapor site, large field of view (\(\sim 5^\circ \) at 210 GHz), and narrow beam widths (\(\sim 1\) arcminute at 210 GHz). EoR-Spec will be outfitted with a cryogenic, metamaterial, silicon substrate-based Fabry–Perot interferometer operating at a resolving power (\(\lambda /\varDelta \lambda \)) of 100. Monolithic dichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled transition edge sensor bolometers provide approximately 6000 detectors, which are read out using a frequency division multiplexing system based on microwave SQUIDs. The novel design allows the measurement of the [CII] line at two redshifts simultaneously using dichroic pixels and two orders of the Fabry–Perot. Here we present the design and science goals of EoR-Spec, with emphasis on the spectrometer, detector array, and readout designs.

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Acknowledgements

Work by NFC was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship. Fabrication work at the Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility supported by NASA Grant NNX16AC72G. MDN acknowledges support from NSF award AST-1454881. This work was performed in part at Cornell NanoScale Facility, an NNCI member supported by NSF Grant ECCS-1542081.

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Cothard, N.F., Choi, S.K., Duell, C.J. et al. The Design of the CCAT-prime Epoch of Reionization Spectrometer Instrument. J Low Temp Phys 199, 898–907 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-019-02297-1

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Keywords

  • Epoch of reionization
  • [CII] Intensity mapping
  • Fabry–Perot interferometer
  • TES spectrometer array