Advertisement

Second-Generation Design of Micro-Spec: A Medium-Resolution, Submillimeter-Wavelength Spectrometer-on-a-Chip

  • G. Cataldo
  • E. M. Barrentine
  • B. T. Bulcha
  • N. Ehsan
  • L. A. Hess
  • O. Noroozian
  • T. R. Stevenson
  • K. U-Yen
  • E. J. Wollack
  • S. H. Moseley
Article
  • 78 Downloads

Abstract

Micro-Spec (µ-Spec) is a direct-detection spectrometer which integrates all the components of a diffraction-grating spectrometer onto a \(\sim \) 10-cm\(^2\) chip through the use of superconducting microstrip transmission lines on a single-crystal silicon substrate. A second-generation µ-Spec is being designed to operate with a spectral resolution of 512 in the submillimeter (500–1000 µm, 300–600 GHz) wavelength range, a band of interest for several spectroscopic applications in astrophysics. High-altitude balloon missions would provide the first test bed to demonstrate the µ-Spec technology in a space-like environment and would be an economically viable venue for multiple observation campaigns. This work reports on the current status of the instrument design and will provide a brief overview of each instrument subsystem. Particular emphasis will be given to the design of the spectrometer’s two-dimensional diffractive region, through which the light of different wavelengths is focused on the detectors along the focal plane. An optimization process is employed to generate geometrical configurations of the diffractive region that satisfy specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range, and performance. An optical design optimized for balloon missions will be presented in terms of geometric layout, spectral purity, and efficiency.

Keywords

Spectroscopy Microstrip transmission line Multimode region Microwave kinetic inductance detectors Far infrared 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project is supported by NASA Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) Grant No. NNH14ZDA001N-APRA. Giuseppe Cataldo acknowledges the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, for administering his appointment at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Madau, M. Dickinson, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 52, 415 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-astro-081811-125615 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Fischer, N.P. Abel, E. Gonzáles-Alfonso, C.C. Dudley, S. Satyapal, P.A.M. van Hoof, Astrophys. J. 795, 117 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/795/2/117 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Gonzáles-Alfonso, H.A. Smith, J. Fischer, J. Cernicharo, Astrophys. J. 613, 247 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1086/422868 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Gonzáles-Alfonso, J. Fischer, K. Isaak, A. Rykala, G. Savini, M. Spaans, P. van der Werf, R. Meijerink, F.P. Israel, A.F. Loenen, C. Vlahakis, H.A. Smith, V. Charmandaris, S. Aalto, C. Henkel, A. Weiß, F. Walter, T.R. Greve, J. Martín-Pintado, D.A. Naylor, L. Spinoglio, S. Veilleux, A.I. Harris, L. Armus, S. Lord, J. Mazzarella, E.M. Xilouris, D.B. Sanders, K.M. Dasyra, M.C. Wiedner, C. Kramer, P.P. Papadopoulos, G.J. Stacey, A.S. Evans, Y. Gao, Astron. Astrophys. 518, L43 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201014664 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.A. Dale, J.D.T. Smith, L. Armus, B.A. Buckalew, G. Helou, R.C. Kennicutt Jr., J. Moustakas, H. Roussel, K. Sheth, G.J. Bendo, D. Calzetti, B.T. Draine, C.W. Engelbracht, K.D. Gordon, D.J. Hollenbach, T.H. Jarrett, L.J. Kewley, C. Leitherer, A. Li, S. Malhotra, E.J. Murphy, F. Walter, Astrophys. J. 646, 161 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1086/504835 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Sturm, D. Lutz, A. Verma, H. Netzer, A. Sternberg, A.F.M. Moorwood, E. Oliva, R. Genzel, Astron. Astrophys. 393, 821 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20021043 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. Cataldo, W.-T. Hsieh, W.-C. Huang, S.H. Moseley, T.R. Stevenson, E.J. Wollack, Appl. Opt. 53, 1094 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.53.001094 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H.A. Rowland, Philos. Mag. 16, 197 (1883)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.J. Naylor, P.A.R. Ade, J.J. Bock, C.M. Bradford, M. Dragovan, L. Duband, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, H. Nguyen, M. Yun, J. Zmuidzinas, Proc. SPIE 4855, 239 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.459419 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.M. Bradford, B.J. Naylor, J. Zmuidzinas, J.J. Bock, J. Gromke, H. Nguyen, M. Dragovan, M. Yun, L. Earle, J. Glenn, H. Matsuhara, P.A.R. Ade, L. Duband, Proc. SPIE 4850, 1137 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.461572 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    B.T. Bulcha, G. Cataldo, T.R. Stevenson, K. U-Yen, S.H. Moseley, E.J. Wollack, J. Low Temp. Phys. (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Hailey-Dunsheath, E. Shirokoff, P.S. Barry, C.M. Bradford, S. Chapman, G. Che, J. Glenn, M. Hollister, A. Kovács, H.G. LeDuc, P. Mauskopf, C. McKenney, R. O’Brient, S. Padin, T. Reck, C. Shiu, C.E. Tucker, J. Wheeler, R. Williamson, J. Zmuidzinas, J. Low Temp. Phys. 184, 180 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-015-1375-x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Endo, P. van der Werf, R.M.J. Janssen, P.J. de Visser, T.M. Klapwijk, J.J.A. Baselmans, L. Ferrari, A.M. Baryshev, S.J.C. Yates, J. Low Temp. Phys. 167, 341 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-012-0502-1 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.N. Thomas, R. Blundell, D. Glowacka, D.J. Goldie, P. Grimes, E. de Lera Acedo, S. Paine, S. Withington, L. Zeng, in 26th International Symposium on Space THz Technology, M4-1 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Bryan, J. Aguirre, G. Che, S. Doyle, D. Flanagan, C. Groppi, B. Johnson, G. Jones, P. Mauskopf, H. McCarrick, A. Monfardini, T. Mroczkowski, J. Low Temp. Phys. 184, 114 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10909-015-1396-5 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. Noroozian, E.M. Barrentine, A.-D. Brown, G. Cataldo, N. Ehsan, W.-T. Hsieh, T.R. Stevenson, K. U-Yen, E.J. Wollack, S.H. Moseley, in 26th International Symposium on Space THz Technology, M4-3 (2015)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Cataldo, W.-T. Hsieh, W.-C. Huang, S.H. Moseley, T.R. Stevenson, E.J. Wollack, Proc. SPIE 9143, 91432C1 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2055202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Cataldo, E.J. Wollack, E.M. Barrentine, A.-D. Brown, S.H. Moseley, K. U-Yen, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 013103 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4904972 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Cataldo, S.H. Moseley, E.J. Wollack, Acta Astronaut. 114, 54 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2015.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Stein, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10, 548 (1962).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.1962.1137917 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Cataldo
    • 1
  • E. M. Barrentine
    • 1
  • B. T. Bulcha
    • 1
  • N. Ehsan
    • 1
  • L. A. Hess
    • 1
  • O. Noroozian
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • T. R. Stevenson
    • 1
  • K. U-Yen
    • 1
  • E. J. Wollack
    • 1
  • S. H. Moseley
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.Central Development LaboratoryNational Radio Astronomy ObservatoryCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations