Exploding and Imaging of Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium
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An electron bubble in liquid helium-4 under the saturated vapor pressure becomes unstable and explodes if the pressure becomes more negative than −1.9 bars. In this paper, we use focused ultrasound to explode electron bubbles. We then image at 30,000 frames per second the growth and subsequent collapse of the bubbles. We find that bubbles can grow to as large as 1 mm in diameter within 2 ms after the cavitation event. We examine the relation between the maximum size of the bubble and the lifetime and find good agreement with the experimental results.
KeywordsCavitation 1 Single electron bubbles 2 Superfluid helium 3
This work was supported by Nanomission, Science and Engineering Research Board, India, by the US National Science Foundation through Grant No. GR5260053, and by the Julian Schwinger Foundation Grant JSF-15-05-0000. The usage of the facilities in Micro and Nano Characterization Facility (MNCF, CeNSE) at IISc is gratefully acknowledged, and the work is partially supported by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology under a grant for the Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Phase II.
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