Design and Expected Performance of GISMO-2, a Two Color Millimeter Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope


We present the main design features for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera, which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISMO-2 will operate simultaneously in the 1 and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a \(32 \times 40\) TES-based backshort under grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a \(16 \times 16\) BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISMO-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera, which is successfully operating at the 30 m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. 1.

    J.E. Carlstrom et al., The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 568–581 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    J.G. Staguhn, C.A. Allen, D.J. Benford, J.A. Chervenak, D.T. Chuss, T.M. Miller, S.H. Moseley, E.J. Wollack, Characterization of TES bolometers used in 2-dimensional backshort-under-grid (BUG) arrays for far-infrared astronomy. Nuclear Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 559, 545–547 (2006)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    J.G. Staguhn, D.J. Benford, C.A. Allen, S.F. Maher, E.H. Sharp, T.J. Ames, R.G. Arendt, D.T. Chuss, E. Dwek, D.J. Fixsen, T.M. Miller, S.H. Moseley, S. Navarro, A. Sievers, E.J. Wollack, Instrument performance of GISMO, a 2 millimeter TES bolometer camera used at the IRAM 30 m Telescope, vol. 7020E, in SPIE, (2008) p. 3.

  4. 4.

    P.L. Capak, D. Riechers, N.Z. Scoville, C. Carilli, P. Cox, R. Neri, B. Robertson, M. Salvato, E. Schinnerer, L. Yan, G.W. Wilson, M. Yun, F. Civano, M. Elvis, A. Karim, B. Mobasher, J.G. Staguhn, A massive protocluster of galaxies at a redshift of z \(\sim \)5.3. Nature 470, 233–235 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    E. Dwek, J.G. Staguhn, R.G. Arendt, P.L. Capak, A. Kovacs, D.J. Benford, D. Fixsen, A. Karim, S. Leclercq, S.F. Maher, S.H. Moseley, E. Schinnerer, E.H. Sharp, Star and dust formation activities in AzTEC-3, a starburst galaxy at z = 5.3. Astrophys. J. 738, 36 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    C.A. Allen, D.J. Benford, J.A. Chervenak, D.T. Chuss, T.M. Miller, S.H. Moseley, J.G. Staguhn, E.J. Wollack, Backshort-under-grid arrays for infrared astronomy. Nucl. Inst. And Meth. A 559(2), p522 (2006)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    J.G. Staguhn, A. Kovacs, R.G. Arendt, D.J. Benford, R. Decarli, E. Dwek, D.J. Fixsen, G.C. Hilton, K.D. Irwin, C.A. Jhabvala, A. Karim, S. Leclercq, S.F. Maher, T.M. Miller, S.H. Moseley, E.H. Sharp, F. Walter, E.J. Wollack, The GISMO 2-millimeter deep field in GOODS-N, arXiv:1311.1485 (2013).

  8. 8.

    G. Bernstein, Advanced exposure-time calculations: undersampling, dithering, cosmic rays, astrometry, and ellipticities. PASP 114, 98 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported through NSF ATI grants 1020981 and 1106284.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Johannes Staguhn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Staguhn, J., Benford, D., Dwek, E. et al. Design and Expected Performance of GISMO-2, a Two Color Millimeter Camera for the IRAM 30 m Telescope. J Low Temp Phys 176, 829–834 (2014).

Download citation


  • Transition Edge Sensor
  • Noise Equivalent Power
  • Silicon Monoxide
  • Bolometer Array
  • Thermal Blocker