Flight Dispersal Capabilities of Female Spotted Lanternflies (Lycorma delicatula) Related to Size and Mating Status

Abstract

The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White), is an orchard and forest pest native to China. Since its detection in Pennsylvania, USA in 2014, it has spread to other states as well. We conducted experiments to determine the flight capabilities of unmated vs. mated L. delicatula females to assess the relative threat posed by each type with regard to expanding the infestation area through their natural flight behaviors. Females were collected from mating pairs, captured on plants, and netted during flights averaging 24 m, then dissected and examined for male spermatophores, a diagnostic character for determining mating status. The weight, amount of yellow area on the abdomen, wing area, and body length and abdominal width was recorded from these females. Sedentary females on plants were selectively collected for their large and swollen abdomen. They were capable of only flying ~4 m when forcibly launched and were significantly heavier than the in-flight-captured females. More than 93% of these large, sedentary females had mated whereas <5% of the flight-captured females had mated. Spontaneously flying females weighed significantly less, and had significantly smaller and less yellowed abdomens than sedentary plant-captured females. We conclude that nearly all the observed spontaneously flying L. delicatula females were unmated and therefore pose a lower threat to spread the infestation than previously thought. We also hypothesize that these thinner, spontaneously flying females embark on these 10–50-m-long flights because they need to find new trees on which to feed to complete their egg maturation in order to oviposit successfully.

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Acknowledgments

We thank the owners of the residence at Site 1, the proprietors of the commercial fruit farm at Site 2, and the commercial amusement park at Site 3 for allowing us to work on their land. We also thank the Lehigh County Penn State Extension Office for allowing us to work in and store our field equipment in their office space. This research was funded on a grant to TCB through a Cooperative Agreement AP18PPQS&T00C198 between USDA-APHIS-PPQ and The Pennsylvania State University. Support for this project was also provided by McIntire-Stennis funds from the Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences to TCB.

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Correspondence to Thomas C. Baker.

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Fig. S1
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Mean wing area (mm2) (± S.E.) of one forewing of each of the Lycorma delicatula females that had either been captured in flight (Good Flyers), collected from trees or grapevines (Poor Flyers), or collected while in copula on Ailanthus altissima or grapes (Mating Pairs). Mean wing areas having no lower case letters in common are statistically different according to Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05). N = 10 for each plant-to-plant flight group of Good Flyers except Apple to Ailanthus (N = 30) and Grape to Apple (N = 37), and N = 6, 9, and 8 for the Grape, Maple and Ailanthus Poor Flyers, respectively. Total means of female wing areas having no Greek letters in common are statistically different according to Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05). N = 107, 8, and 23 for the Good Flyers, Mating Pairs and Poor Flyers, respectively (PNG 470 kb)

Fig. S2
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Mean lengths (mm) (± S.E.) of the abdomens of Lycorma delicatula females that were either captured in flight (Good Flyers), collected from trees or grapevines (Poor Flyers), or collected while in copula on Ailanthus altissima or grapes (Mating Pairs). Mean abdomen lengths having no lower case letters in common are statistically different according to Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05). N = 10 for each plant-to-plant flight group of Good Flyers except Apple to Ailanthus (N = 30) and Grape to Apple (N = 37), and N = 6, 9, and 8 for the Grape, Maple and Ailanthus Poor Flyers, respectively. Total means of female abdominal lengths having no Greek letters in common are statistically different according to Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05). N = 107, 8, and 23 for the Good Flyers, Mating Pairs and Poor Flyers, respectively (PNG 346 kb)

Fig. S3
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Mean abdominal widths (mm) (± S.E.) of Lycorma delicatula females that were either captured in flight (Good Flyers), collected from trees or grapevines (Poor Flyers), or collected while in copula on Ailanthus altissima or grapes (Mating Pairs). Mean female abdominal widths having no lower case letters in common are statistically different according to Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05; N = 10 for each flight group except Apple to Ailanthus [N = 30] and Grape to Apple [N = 37]). N = 10 for each plant-to-plant flight group of Good Flyers except Apple to Ailanthus (N = 30) and Grape to Apple (N = 37), and N = 6, 9, and 8 for the Grape, Maple and Ailanthus Poor Flyers, respectively. Total means of female abdominal widths having no Greek letters in common are statistically different according to Tukey’s HSD test (P < 0.05). N = 107, 8, and 23 for the Good Flyers, Mating Pairs and Poor Flyers, respectively (PNG 288 kb)

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Wolfin, M.S., Binyameen, M., Wang, Y. et al. Flight Dispersal Capabilities of Female Spotted Lanternflies (Lycorma delicatula) Related to Size and Mating Status. J Insect Behav 32, 188–200 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10905-019-09724-x

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Keywords

  • Flight dispersal behavior
  • flight capability
  • Invasive species
  • Lycorma delicatula
  • spotted lanternfly
  • spermatophore