Innate Olfactory Responses of Asobara japonica Toward Fruits Infested by the Invasive Spotted Wing Drosophila
- 252 Downloads
Insect parasitoids are often manipulated to improve biological control programs for various arthropod pests. Volatile compounds can be a relevant cue used by most parasitoid hymenoptera for host or host microhabitat location. Here, we studied olfactory responses of the braconid Asobara japonica Belokobylskij, an Asiatic endoparasitoid of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), toward its host and host substrates. Adult A. japonica displayed an innate attraction to undescribed volatile cues from infested host fruits irrespectively of the juvenile rearing experience, i.e. they respond to a novel cue subsequently used for microhabitat selection. These data suggest that A. japonica parasitoids mass-reared on artificial diet and factitious host (D. melanogaster) can successfully locate their hosts. Naïve female parasitoids did not show a preference towards any of the tested host media. However, the enforced adult experience with the rearing host medium modified the olfactory preference patterns toward non-natal host fruits. These findings provide evidence of associative learning during the adult stage of A. japonica, and demonstrate its plasticity in exploiting the volatiles from various fruits infested by D. suzukii.
KeywordsBiological control chemical ecology conditioning host location invasive pest learning
We thank the California Cherry Board, USDA APHIS (Farm bill, fund 14-8130-0463), National Institute of Food and Agriculture USDA Specialty Crops Research Initiative (No. 2015-51181-24252), University of California Agricultural and Natural for partially funding this study, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (PRIN project GEISCA, 2010CXXHJE_004); foreign exploration was funded by a USDA-NIFA (2010-51181-21167). We thank Kees van Achterberg (National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands) and Emilio Guerrieri (Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, CNR, Portici, Italy) for the confirmation of the parasitoid specific identification; Hiromi Murata and John Hutchins (University of California, Berkeley) for their assistance during the bioassays and preliminary colony maintenance, respectively. Antonio Biondi received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/ under REA grant agreement 318246.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding this paper and that they have no competing financial interests.
- Dalton DT, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Walsh DB, Caprile J, Isaacs R (2011) Laboratory survival of Drosophila suzukii under simulated winter conditions of the Pacific northwest and seasonal field trapping in five primary regions of small and stone fruit production in the United States. Pest Manag Sci 67:1368–1374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Godfray HCJ (1994) Parasitoids: behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Gutierrez AP, Ponti L, Dalton DT (2016) Analysis of the invasiveness of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) in North America, Europe, and the Mediterranean. Biol Invasions 18:3647–3663Google Scholar
- Jervis M (2005) Insects as natural enemies: a practical perspective. Springer Science & Business Media, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
- Turlings TCJ, Wäckers FL, Vet LEM et al (1993) Learning of host-finding cues by hymenopterous parasitoids. In: Papaj DR, Lewis AC (eds) Insect learning. Ecology and evolutionary perspectives. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 51–78Google Scholar