Skip to main content

Design and Fabrication of a Novel Metal-Free SiO2/g-C3N4 Nanocomposite: A Robust Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Organic Contaminants

Abstract

Development of novel and efficient nanostructured materials for the waste water treatment is a great challenge for the researchers. In this regard, we report a novel SiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were tailored via simple solvothermal route and characterized by various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, UV–Vis DRS, SEM, TEM and XPS. The photocatalytic performances of the as-prepared SiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were evaluated for the removal of hazardous rhodamine B (RhB) and crystal violet (CV) organic dyes in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Interestingly, the UV–Visible spectroscopy results revealed that the as-synthesized SiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite showed superior photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB and CV dyes could degrade 99 and 98% under visible-light irradiation respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of SiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites could be mainly attributed to the proficient separation of photo-induced charge carriers. A plausible degradation mechanism for the controlled visible-light photocatalytic activity of SiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was strongly evidenced by the trapping experiment by employing different scavengers. The present research findings may open up a new platform for the g-C3N4 based photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants.

Graphical Abstract

Proposed degradation mechanism of the SiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalyst.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Scheme 1
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. D.A. Gopakumar, D. Pasquini, M.A. Henrique, L.C. Morais, Y. Grohens, S. Thomas, ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 5, 2026 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. S. Wojtyla, W. Macyk, T. Baran, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 16, 1079 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Y. Hanifehpour, B. Mirtamizdoust, M.A. Cheney, S.W. Joo, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 11654 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. K.R. Reddy, K.V. Karthik, S.B. Benaka Prasad, S.K. Soni, H.M. Jeong, A.V. Raghu, Polyhedron 120, 169 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. R. Karthik, J.V. Kumar, S.M. Chen, K. Chelladurai, Y.H. Cheng, V. Muthuraj, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 6547 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. K.R. Reddy, K. Nakata, T. Ochiai, T. Murakami, D.A. Tryk, A. Fujishima, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 3692 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. M. Cakici, K.R. Reddy, F.A. Marroquin, Chem. Eng. J. 309, 151 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. J. Zhu, P. Xiao, H. Li, S.A.C. Carabinerio, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 16449 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. X. Chen, B. Zhou, S. Yang, H. Wu, Y. Wu, L. Wu, J. Pan, X. Xiong, RSC Adv. 5, 68953 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Q. Chen, H. Hou, D. Zhang, S. Hu, T. Min, B. Liu, C. Yang, W. Pu, J. Hu, J. Yang, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 350, 1 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. S. Zhang, J. Li, M. Zeng, J. Li, J. Xu, X. Wang, Chem. Eur. J. 20, 9805 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Y. Yao, Y. Cai, F. Lu, J. Qin, F. Wei, C. Xu, S. Wang, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 53, 17294 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. S. Samanta, S. Martha, K. Parida, ChemCatChem 6, 1453 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. H. Fujiwara, H. Hosokawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, T. Okada, H. Kobayashi, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 8270 (1997)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. A. Dhakshinamoorthy, S. Navalon, A. Corma, H. Garcia, Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 9217 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. X. Wang, S. Blechert, M. Antonietti, ACS Catal. 2, 1596 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. K. Maeda, X. Wang, Y. Nishihara, D. Lu, M. Antonietti, K. Domen, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 4940 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. H. Yan, H. Yang, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 26 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. X.C. Wang, K. Maeda, X.F. Chen, K. Takanabe, K. Domen, Y. Hou, X. Fu, M. Antonietti, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1680 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. F. Dong, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W.K. Ho, Appl. Surf. Sci. 358, 393 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. X.F. Chen, J.S. Zhang, X.Z. Fu, M. Antonietti, X.C. Wang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11658 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. M. Zhang, J. Xu, R.L. Zong, Y.F. Zhu, Appl. Catal. B 147, 229 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. G.H. Dong, K. Zhao, L.Z. Zhang, Chem. Commun. 48, 6178 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. X.C. Wang, X.F. Chen, A. Thomas, X.Z. Fu, M. Antonietti, Adv. Mater. 21, 1609 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. B.J. Jankiewicz, D. Jamiola, J. Choma, M. Jaroniec, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 170, 28 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. S.K. Samantaray, K.M. Parida, Appl. Catal. A 211, 175 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. H.B. Yener, S.S. Helvaci, Sep. Purif. Technol. 140, 84 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. A. Showkat, Y. Zhang, M.S. Kim, A.I. Gopalan, K.R. Reddy, K.P. Lee, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 28, 1985 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, K. Zhao, Nano Lett. 14, 7161 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Y.P. Zhang, S.H. Lee, K.R. Reddy, A.I. Gopalan, K.P. Lee, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 104, 2743 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. K.K. Qian, R.H. Bogner, J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 444 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. R.H. Dave, Overview of pharmaceutical excipients used in tablets and capsules. Drug Topics (online). Advanstar. 10/24/2008

  33. Y. Wu, L. Tao, J. Zhao, X. Yue, W. Deng, Y.X. Li, C. Wang, Res. Chem. Intermed. 42, 3609 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. J. Lei, Y. Chen, F. Shen, L.Z. Wang, Y.D. Liu, J.L. Zhang, J. Alloys Compd. 631, 328 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. W. Wang, J.C. Yi, D. Xia, P.K. Wong, Y. Li, Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 8724 (2013)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. J.X. Sun, Y.P. Yuan, L.G. Qin, X. Jiang, A.J. Xie, Y.H. Shen, J.F. Zhu, Dalton Trans. 41, 6756 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. J. Wang, Z. Guan, J. Huang, Q. Li, J. Yang, J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 7960 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Y. Wang, X. Bai, C. Pan, J. He, Y. Zhu, J. Mater. Chem. 22, 11568 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. K. Prakash, P.S. Kumar, P. Latha, K.S. Durai, R. Shanmugam, S. Karuthapandian, Mater. Res. Bull. 93, 112 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. J.H. Liu, T.K. Zhang, Z.C. Wang, G. Dawson, W. Chen, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 14398 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. X. Wang, S. Wang, W. Hu, J. Gai, L. Zhang, L. Dong, L. Zhao, Y. He, Mater. Lett. 115, 53 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. K.R. Reddy, K.P. Lee, A.G. Iyengar, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 104, 4127 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. K.R. Reddy, V.G. Gomes, M. Hassan, Mater. Res. Express 1, 015012 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. X. Bai, C. Sun, S. Wu, Y. Zhu, J. Mater. Chem. A 3, 2741 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. S. Zhang, J. Li, M. Zeng, G. Zhao, J. Xu, W. Hu, X. Wang, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 12735 (2013)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Y. Hu, M. Xie, S. Huang, H. Xu, H. Ji, J. Xia, Y. Li, H. Li, RSC Adv. 5, 26281 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. X. Yuan, C. Zhou, Y. Jin, Q. Jing, Y. Yang, X. Shen, Q. Tang, Y. Mu, A.K. Du, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 468, 211 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. K.R. Reddy, K.P. Lee, A.I. Gopalan, Colloid Surf. A 320, 49 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. X.M. Tai, Z.P. Du, W.X. Wang, M.F. Hou, Y.H. Zhao, Power Technol. 264, 273 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. T. Wang, X.Q. Yan, S.S. Zhao, B. Lin, C. Xue, G.D. Yang, S.J. Ding, B.L. Yang, C.S. Ma, G. Yang, G.R. Yang, J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 15611 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. J.Y. Zhang, Y.H. Wang, J. Jin, J. Zhang, Z. Lin, F. Huang, J.G. Yu, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 10317 (2013)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Q. Liang, M. Zhang, C. Yao, C. Liu, S. Xu, Z. Li, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 332, 357 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. J. Ma, D. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Zou, Y. Kong, J. Zhu, S. Komarneni, Chemosphere 162, 269 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. W. Zhang, X. Xiao, Y. Li, X. Zeng, L. Zheng, C. Wan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 389, 496 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. C.Q. Li, Z. Sun, X. Li, L. Liu, S. Zheng, Adv. Powder Technol. 27, 2051 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. M.E. Pilleux, C.R. Grahmann, V.M. Fuenzalida, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1601 (1994)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. M. Jeem, L. Zhang, J. Ishioka, T. Shibayama, T. Iwasaki, T. Kato, S. Watnanabe, Nano Lett. 17, 2088 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. H. Hassan, E. Haque, K.R. Reddy, A.I. Minett, J. Chen, V.G. Gomes, Nanoscale 6, 11988 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. K. Li, S. Gao, Q. Wang, H. Xu, Z. Wang, B. Huang, Y. Dai, J. Lu, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 9023 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. S.Y. Chou, C.C. Chen, Y.M. Dai, J.H. Lin, W.W. Lee, RSC Adv. 6, 33478 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. A. Akhundi, A.H. Yangjeh, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 482, 165 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. K.R. Reddy, B.C. Sin, C.H. Yoo, W. Park, K.S. Ryn, J.S. Lee, D. Sohn, Y. Lee, Scripta Mater. 58, 1010 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. S. Wojtyla, T. Baran, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 27, 436 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Y. Hanifehpour, N. Hamnabard, B. Mirtamizdoust, S.W. Joo, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 26, 623 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. P. Latha, R. Dhanabackialakshmi, P.S. Kumar, S. Karuthapandian, Sep. Purif. Technol. 168, 124 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. P.S. Kumar, S. Sobiya, M. Selvakumar, S.G. Babu, S. Karuthapandian, Energy Environ. Focus 5, 139 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. K. Saravanakumar, M. Ramjan, P. Suresh, V. Muthuraj, J. Alloys Compd. 664, 149 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. W. Lei, D. Portehault, R. Dimova, M. Antoniettit, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 7121 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. V.N. Khabashesku, J.L. Zimmerman, J.L. Margrave, Chem. Mater. 12, 3264 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. X. Zhang, F. Wu, N. Deng, J. Hazard. Mater. 85, 117 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. P.S. Kumar, S. Karuthapandian, M. Umadevi, A. Elangovan, V. Muthuraj, Mater. Focus 5, 128 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors express their sincere thanks to the College managing board, Principal and Head of the Department, VHNSN College for providing the necessary research facilities. Finally I thank Padova University, Italy for providing XPS analysis facility.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Karuthapandian.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 3173 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Prakash, K., Kumar, P.S., Latha, P. et al. Design and Fabrication of a Novel Metal-Free SiO2/g-C3N4 Nanocomposite: A Robust Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Organic Contaminants. J Inorg Organomet Polym 28, 268–278 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-017-0715-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-017-0715-5

Keywords

  • SiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite
  • Solvothermal synthesis
  • Visible-light photocatalyst
  • Scavenger