Parsing the Paradox: Hispanic Mortality in the US by Detailed Cause of Death
- 244 Downloads
US Hispanics are a disadvantaged population that paradoxically has lower mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites. We conducted a descriptive analysis of age-adjusted mortality rates for 113 causes of death for US Hispanics (USH) and US non-Hispanic whites (USNHW) during 1999–2015. All-cause, age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 were: 581.1 USH and 788.8 USNHW. Lower Hispanic mortality from cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease accounted for almost all the all-cause mortality gap. USH rates were higher than USNHW rates for cancers of the stomach, liver, and cervix; diabetes mellitus; liver disease; and homicide. Behavioural factors such as less smoking among USH probably drive their lower rates for the major chronic diseases. Social disadvantages contribute to elevated risk for certain cancers, diabetes, and homicide. Efforts to improve Hispanic well-being in the US should remedy the social disadvantages while preserving the health advantages the population enjoys.
KeywordsMortality Hispanic Disparity Ethnicity Neoplasm
- 1.DeNavas-Walt C, Proctor BD. Income and poverty in the United States: 2014. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2015.Google Scholar
- 7.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Multiple cause of death 1999–2015 [online]. Atlanta: National Center for Health. https://wonder.cdc.gov/mcd.html. Accessed 17 Jan 2017.
- 13.Xu J, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Bastian BA. Deaths: final data for 2013. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2016.Google Scholar
- 14.Adhikari B, Kahende J, Malarcher A, Pechacek T, Tong V. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000–2004. MMWR. 2008;57(45):1126–228.Google Scholar
- 15.Zhong G, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Guo JJ, Zhao Y. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies with investigation of potential effect modifiers. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):1–23.Google Scholar
- 16.National Center for Health Statistics, Summary health statistics for the U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010.Google Scholar
- 17.National Center for Health Statistics, Smoking and other tobacco use: United States, 1987. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 1989.Google Scholar
- 19.Blackwell DL, Lucas JW, Clarke TC. Summary health statistics for the U.S. adults; National Health Interview Survey, 2012. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2014.Google Scholar
- 20.Eberhardt MS, Ingram DD, Makuc DM, Pamuk ER, Freid VM, Harper SB, Schoenborn CA, Xia H. Urban and rural health chartbook. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2001.Google Scholar
- 22.Gu Q, Dillon C, Burt V. Prescription drug use continues to increase: U.S. prescription drug data for 2007–2008. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010.Google Scholar
- 23.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2010 National Survey on drug use and health. Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services; 2011.Google Scholar
- 24.Sullivan KJ, Husak LE, Altebarmakian M, Brox WT. Demographic factors in hip fracture incidence and mortality rates in California, 2000–2011. J Orthop Surg 2016;11(4). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-015-0332-3.
- 25.Adams PF, Kirzinger WK, Martinez ME. Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2012. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2013.Google Scholar
- 26.Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Miller KD, Goding-Sauer A, Pinheiro PS, Martinez-Tyson D, Jemal A. Cancer statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2015. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65:457–80.Google Scholar
- 29.Trevelyan E, Gambino C, Gryn T, Larsen L, Acosta Y, Grieco E, Harris D, Walters N. Characteristics of the U.S. population by generational status: 2013. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2016.Google Scholar
- 30.American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures for Hispanics/Latinos, 2015–2017. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2015.Google Scholar
- 32.Pan L, Galuska DA, Hunter AS, Rutledge GE, Dietz WH. Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults—United States, 2006–2008. MMWR. 2009;58(27):740–4.Google Scholar
- 34.Burrows NR, Valdez R, Geiss LS, Engelgau ME. Prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics—selected areas, 1998–2002. MMWR. 2004;53(40):941–4.Google Scholar
- 38.Hoyert DL. Maternal mortality and related concepts. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2007.Google Scholar
- 41.Dominguez K, Penman-Aguilar A, Chang M, Moonesinghe R, Castellanos T, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Schieber R. Vital signs: leading causes of death, prevalence of diseases and risk factors, and use of health services among Hispanics in the United States—2009–2013. MMWR. 2015;64(17):469–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.Arias E, Heron M, Hakes JK. The validity of race and Hispanic-origin reporting on death certificates in the United States: an update. Vital Health Stat 2016; 2(172):1–18.Google Scholar
- 43.U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission. Border lives: health status in the United States-Mexico border region, 2010. http://www.borderhealth.org/files/res_2213.pdf. Accessed 8 Jan 2017.
- 44.Hing E, Rui P, Palso K. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2013 [online]. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/namcs_summary/2013_namcs_web_tables.pdf. Accessed 6 Mar 2017.