Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 1380–1386 | Cite as

Socioeconomic Status and Glycemic Index Among Punjabis in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Possible Association with Metabolic Syndrome

  • Satvinder Kaur
  • Hip Seng Yim
  • Rohana Abdul Jalil
  • Barakatun-Nisak Mohd-Yusof
  • Hamid Jan. Jan Mohamed
Original Paper


There are only limited reports on Punjabi’s health status in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) and its risk factors among 277 subjects recruited from the Malaysian Punjabi community. Overall prevalence of Mets was 43%, but 61% among females. Subjects classified with Mets had significantly (p < 0.05) higher body mass index, visceral fat and percentage of body fat. Daily carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) were also higher among Mets subjects (p < 0.05). Logistics regression analysis showed that primary level of education (OR 5.57, CI 1.29–23.97, p = 0.021) was a factor associated with Mets, followed by middle household income (OR 2.30, CI 1.01–5.20, p = 0.046), GI (OR 1.03, CI 1.00–1.06, p = 0.026), and age (OR 1.03, CI 1.00–1.05, p = 0.023). Mets shows high prevalence among the studied Punjabi population, prompting the consideration of adequate preventive measures, primarily among lower socioeconomic groups.


Punjabi Malaysia Metabolic syndrome Glycemic index Socioeconomic status 



The authors would like to thank the Malaysian Punjabi community especially the participating subjects for being part of the study. Our heartfelt thanks also go to all lab technicians and phlebotomists of Laurent Bleu Pathology Lab for their commitment and contribution to blood sample collection and analysis. We are also grateful to Professor Mirnalini Kandiah for vetting through our manuscript for language proficiency. Lastly, our appreciation goes to all research enumerators that contributed to data collection and data entry of the study. The Research Grant Scheme by UCSI University (Proj-IN-FAS-014) funded this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human subjects were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satvinder Kaur
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hip Seng Yim
    • 1
  • Rohana Abdul Jalil
    • 3
  • Barakatun-Nisak Mohd-Yusof
    • 4
  • Hamid Jan. Jan Mohamed
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied SciencesUCSI UniversityCherasMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Health SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  3. 3.School of Medical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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