Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Diabetes-Related Outcomes Among Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes
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Discrimination is associated with adverse health outcomes, but few studies have examined the association of discrimination with diabetes-related outcomes including mental health and glycemic control, particularly for immigrant and US-born Latinos. We analyzed survey data (n = 222) collected at baseline of a diabetes intervention. Using multiple linear regression, we examined the association of racial/ethnic discrimination with depressive symptoms, diabetes-related distress, and HbA1c, and variation in these associations by nativity and, for immigrants, length of US residence. Racial/ethnic discrimination was positively associated with depressive symptoms (b = 2.57, SE = 0.45, p < 0.01) and diabetes-related distress (b = 0.30, SE = 0.09, p < 0.01). We could not reject the null hypothesis of no cross-sectional association of racial/ethnic discrimination with HbA1c (b = − 0.27, SE = 0.18, p = 0.14). Although racial/ethnic discrimination did not directly affect HbA1c, racial/ethnic discrimination had a significant mediating effect on HbA1c through diabetes-related distress (p = 0.02). Results suggest that racial/ethnic discrimination is detrimental for health for Latinos with diabetes.
KeywordsLatinos Hispanics Discrimination Unfair treatment Diabetes Depressive symptoms Diabetes-related distress
We thank the Community Health and Social Services (CHASS) and REACH Detroit Partnership staff, the REACH Detroit Partnerships Steering Committee (http://www.reachdetroit.org), and the REACH Detroit Family Intervention Participants for their involvement in this study. The REACH Detroit Partnership is affiliated with the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (http://www.sph.umich.edu/URC). This research was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (R18DK0785501: Spencer, PI), Peers for Progress grant from the American Association of Family Physicians Foundation (Grant P30DK092926) (Michigan Center for Diabetes Translational Research), and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Cooperative Agreement No. U50/CCU417409). The results presented here are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funding sources.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The University of Michigan Institutional Review Board approved all study protocols prior to data collection.
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