Cardiovascular Health in St. Louis Bosnian-Americans
- 105 Downloads
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 50% of deaths. Cardiovascular health of resettled Bosnian-Americans has not been well-characterized. Our study aimed to quantify cardiovascular risk in Bosnian-Americans in St. Louis, the largest non-European center of resettlement. Seven community screenings focused on Bosnian-Americans were held. Cardiovascular risk was calculated to stratify individuals into low (<10%), moderate (10–20%), and high (>20%) risk. Those with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) or risk equivalent were considered high-risk. Two-hundred fifty Bosnian-Americans were screened; 51% (n = 128) consented to the IRB-approved study. Twenty-one percent were smokers, 33% obese, and 33% had hypertension. Excluding risk equivalent individuals, 5.7% of subjects were high-risk, increasing to 26.6% when including high-risk equivalents. Lipid abnormalities include elevated triglycerides (29.0%) and low HDL (50.0%). Compared to general American population studies, Bosnian-Americans have greater ten-year hard CHD risk. A community-based approach identified potential culturally-based lifestyle interventions including diet, exercise, and smoking.
KeywordsBosnian–American Predicted coronary heart disease risk Immigrant health cardiovascular screening
This study was supported by a grant from The Greater Saint Louis Health Foundation. We gratefully acknowledge the enthusiastic support of community partners without whom these screening events would not have been possible: Grbic Restaurant, Europa Market, Bosnian Chamber of Commerce, Aboussie Pavilions, Saint Louis Bosnians, LAMP interpreting services, Gateway Healthcare, as well as SSM Health and the Special Events team of SSM Saint Louis University Hospital..
- 4.Naghavi M, Wang H, Lozano R, et al. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. 2015;385(9963):117–71.Google Scholar
- 7.Zaciragic A. The use of reynolds risk score in cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy Bosnian men and women. In: Atiq M, editor. Recent advances in cardiovascular risk factors. Rijeka: InTech; 2012. pp. 341–55.Google Scholar
- 10.Kim E. Little Bosnia: effort underway to win recognition for Bosnian immigrants’ contributions to Bevo Mill. St. Louis: St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 2004.Google Scholar
- 14.American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/PhysicalActivity/FitnessBasics/American-Heart-Association-Recommendations-for-Physical-Activity-in-Adults_UCM_307976_Article.jsp#.WA4qo1czHzJ. Accessed October 24, 2015.
- 15.American Heart Association Understanding Blood Pressure Readings. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/Understanding-Blood-Pressure-Readings_UCM_301764_Article.jsp. Accessed October 24, 2015.
- 16.American Health Association Body Mass Index in Adults (BMI Calculator for Adults). http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/WeightManagement/BodyMassIndex/Body-Mass-Index-In-Adults-BMI-Calculator-for-Adults_UCM_307849_Article.jsp#.WC9XsFczHzI. Accessed October 24, 2015.
- 21.Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106(25):3143–421.Google Scholar
- 26.Marma AK, Berry JD, Ning H, Persell SD, Lloyd-Jones DM. Distribution of 10-year and lifetime predicted risks for cardiovascular disease in US adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010;3(1):8–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 32.Carroll MD, Kit BK, Lacher DA, Yoon SS. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012. NCHS data brief. 2013; (132):pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
- 39.Quitting smoking among adults–United States, 2001–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011; 60(44):1513–9.Google Scholar
- 49.Upadhyay RK. Emerging risk biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases and disorders. J Lipids. 2015;50.Google Scholar
- 56.Saint Louis Regional Health Commission: Progress toward building a healthy. St. Louis: Access to Care Data Book; 2015.Google Scholar