Many US Latinos migrate or travel between the US and Mexico on a regular basis, defined as circular migration. Latinos with diabetes (n = 250) were surveyed about circular migration and their ability to use medications and perform recommended diabetes self-care activities. A review of medical charts was performed. Twenty-eight percent (n = 70) of patients traveled to Mexico during the last 12 months. Older Latinos were more likely to report traveling to Mexico and back into the US. Among those that traveled, 29 % reported use of less medication than they wanted to or were prescribed because of travel and 20 % ran out of medications. The rate of reported problem areas while traveling were 39 % (27/70) for following a diabetic diet, 31 % (21/70) for taking medication, and 37 % (26/70) for glucose self-monitoring. The results suggest that the structure of primary care and care coordination are important for this population to fully engage in diabetes self-care.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Villarejo D, et al. Suffering in silence: a report on the health of California’s agricultural workers. San Francisco: California Institute of Rural Studies; 2000.
Ennis SR, Ríos-Vargas M, Albert NG. The Hispanic population: 2010. Census briefs 2010. Washington: US Department of Commerce; 2011.
Arcury TA, Quandt SA. Delivery of health services to migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:345–63.
Passel JS, Cohn DV. Mexican immigrants: how many come? How many leave?. Washington: Pew Hispanic Center; 2009.
Torres JM, Wallace SP. Migration circumstances, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health for Latino immigrants in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(9):1619–27.
Diamant AL, et al. Diabetes: the growing epidemic. Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research; 2007.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics: selected areas, 1998–2002. MMWR. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004.
Mainous AG 3rd, et al. Quality of care for hispanic adults with diabetes. Fam Med. 2007;39(5):351–6.
Harris MI, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in glycemic control of adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(3):403–8.
McWilliams JM, et al. Differences in control of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by race, ethnicity, and education: US trends from 1999 to 2006 and effects of medicare coverage. Ann Int Med. 2009;150(8):505–15.
Lasater LM, et al. Glycemic control in English- vs Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Int Med. 2001;161(1):77–82.
Lavery LA, et al. Variation in the incidence and proportion of diabetes-related amputations in minorities. Diabetes Care. 1996;19(1):48–52.
Otiniano ME, et al. Lower extremity amputations in diabetic Mexican American elders: incidence, prevalence and correlates. J Diabetes Complicat. 2003;17(2):59–65.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(Suppl 1):S14–80.
Wirth C, Strochlic R, Getz C. Hunger in the fields: food insecurity among farmworkers in Fresno County. Davis: California Institute for Rural Studies; 2007.
Ayala M, et al. In their own words: farmworker access to health care in four California regions. Davis: California Institute for Rural Studies; 2003.
Moreno G, Morales LS. Hablamos Juntos (together we speak): interpreters, provider communication, and satisfaction with care. J Gen Int Med. 2010;25(12):1282–8.
Brown AF, et al. Health behaviors and quality of care among Latinos with diabetes in managed care. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(10):1694–8.
Ornelas IJ, Perreira KM. The role of migration in the development of depressive symptoms among Latino immigrant parents in the USA. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(8):1169–77.
Piwowar A, Knapik-Kordecka M, Warwas M. Oxidative stress and endothelium dysfunction in diabetes mellitus type 2. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2008;25(146):120–3.
Chang CM, et al. Acute and chronic fluctuations in blood glucose levels can increase oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol. 2012;49(Suppl 1):S171–7.
Quagliaro L, et al. Intermittent high glucose enhances apoptosis related to oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the role of protein kinase C and NAD(P)H-oxidase activation. Diabetes. 2003;52(11):2795–804.
Rizzo MR, et al. Relationships between daily acute glucose fluctuations and cognitive performance among aged type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(10):2169–74.
Nunez de Jaimes F, et al. Implementation of language assessments for staff interpreters in community health centers. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013;24(3):1002–9.
The Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes. (TRIAD) study: a multicenter study of diabetes in managed care. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(2):386–9.
Carroll D, et al. Findings from the national agricultural worker survey 2001–2002. Washington: US Department of Labor; 2005.
Andrade FC. Measuring the impact of diabetes on life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Mexico. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2010;65B(3):381–9.
Rubalcava LN, et al. The healthy migrant effect: new findings from the Mexican family life survey. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(1):78–84.
Vargas Bustamante A, et al. Variations in healthcare access and utilization among Mexican immigrants: the role of documentation status. J Immigr Minor Health. 2012;14(1):146–55.
Quandt SA, et al. Farmworker and farmer perceptions of farmworker agricultural chemical exposure in North Carolina. Hum Organ. 1998;57:359–68.
Kirk JK, et al. Disparities in A1C levels between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(2):240–6.
Dr. Moreno received support from an NIA (K23 AG042961-01) Paul B. Beeson Career Development Award, the American Federation for Aging Research. Drs. Moreno and Mangione received support from the UCLA Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research Center for Health Improvement of Minority Elderly (RCMAR/CHIME) under NIH/NIA Grant P30-AG021684, and the content does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIA or the NIH. Dr. Mangione received support from the UCLA Clinical and Translational Science Institute through the NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Science Grant Number UL1TR000124 and Barbara A. Levey & Gerald S. Levey Endowed Chair.
Conflict of interest
About this article
Cite this article
Moreno, G., Morales, L.S., Batts, F. et al. Migration, Health Care Behaviors, and Primary Care for Rural Latinos with Diabetes. J Immigrant Minority Health 18, 1247–1252 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-015-0254-5
- Bi-national healthcare