Ethnic Differences in Drowning Rates in Ontario, Canada
- 318 Downloads
The scientific literature suggests ethnicity may be a risk factor for drowning. Ontario, Canada is one of the most ethnically diverse places in the world. The objective of our study was to determine if Asians, Africans and Hispanics were at an increased risk of drowning compared to Greater Europeans. Ethnicity served as a surrogate for country of origin. Using Coroner’s reports, all unintentional drowning deaths in Ontario from 2004 to 2008 were reviewed. The ethnicity of drowning victims was estimated using a previously validated name-based ethnicity classifier. Age-standardized drowning rates were calculated by sex and place of residence (rural vs. non-rural) for people of each ethnicity group using the method of direct standardization. For residents of Ontario living in rural areas, the age-standardized drowning rate was significantly higher among men of Asian, African, or Hispanic ethnicity compared to men of Greater European ethnicity (RR 13.9; 95 % CI 8.1–23.8) and for women of Asian, African, or Hispanic ethnicity compared to women of Greater European ethnicity (RR 23.9; 95 % CI 6.4–89.1). These high-risk individuals need to be considered when developing drowning prevention strategies.
KeywordsDrowning Ethnicity Ontario Harm prevention Swimming Immigrant
Preliminary findings from this study were presented at the 2011 World Conference on Drowning Prevention, Danang, Vietnam, May 10, 2011. This project was funded by an unrestricted Grant from the Lifesaving Society of Ontario. The funder had no input on study design, data acquisition, data interpretation, or manuscript writing. The authors thank Dr. Jim Edwards, June Lindsell, and the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario for support, valued input, and access to data. The authors wish to thank Angela Prencipe of the Toronto Region Statistics Canada Research Data Centre for guidance in accessing Census data and Jing Shen for expert assistance in programming and data extraction. The authors also wish to thank Marisa Creatore of the Centre for Research on Inner City Health for her assistance in using the Statistics Canada Postal Code Conversion File. The Centre for Research on Inner City Health gratefully acknowledges the support of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The results and conclusions are those of the authors, and no official endorsement by any of the above organizations is intended or should be inferred.
- 1.World Health Organization. Drowning factsheets. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs347/en/. Accessed 8 Sept 2012.
- 2.Royal Lifesaving Society Canada. The national drowning trends report: 1991–2000. Lifesaving Society of Canada’s website. http://www.lifesaving.ca/. Accessed 12 Jan 2013.
- 3.Smartrisk. The economic burden of injury. www.smartrisk.ca/downloads/burden/Canada2009/EBI-Eng-Final.pdf. Accessed 19 March 2012.
- 4.Lewis P. Census highlights: factsheet 7—immigration and citizenship. 2006. http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/economy/demographics/census/cenhi06-7.html. Accessed 8 Nov 2012.
- 5.Chui T, Tran K, Maheux H. Canada’s Ethnocultural Mosaic, Census. 2006. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-562/pdf/97-562-XIE2006001.pdf. Accessed 8 Sept 2013.
- 10.Ambekar A, Ward C, Mohammed J, Male S, Skiena S. Name-ethnicity classification from open sources. In: Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, 2009, p 49–58.Google Scholar
- 16.Iltan C. In a nation defined by water, new Canadians struggle to stay safe. The Globe and Mail. 15 July 2010.Google Scholar