Skip to main content

Social Determinants of Physical Activity Among Adult Asian-Americans: Results from a Population-Based Survey in California

An Erratum to this article was published on 02 October 2014

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the key social determinants of physical activity among six Asian-American subgroups using public access 2007 California Health Interview Survey data. Physical activity was defined as meeting the American College of Sports Medicine recommendation of 450 metabolic equivalent-minutes per week. Factors positively associated with meeting physical activity recommendations included being bilingual among Chinese and Vietnamese, and increasing age for Chinese only. On the other hand, being middle aged, currently married, and low neighborhood safety were significantly associated with lower odds of meeting physical activity recommendations, as were being female for Japanese and Koreans, and living above the poverty level for Vietnamese. Such results highlight the heterogeneity among Asian-Americans and need for health messages targeted at specific subgroups. Additionally, the role of built environment, particularly in areas with high Filipino residents, should be a public health priority for increasing physical activity outcomes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Horn LV, et al. Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction the American Heart Association’s Strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010;121(4):586–613.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Lee I-M, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and stroke incidence the Harvard Alumni Health Study. Stroke. 1998;29(10):2049–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Manson JE, Hu FB, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(9):650–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Smith GD, Shipley M, Batty G, Morris J, Marmot M. Physical activity and cause-specific mortality in the Whitehall study. Public Health. 2000;114(5):308–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Leon AS, Myers MJ, Connett J. Leisure time physical activity and the 16-year risks of mortality from coronary heart disease and all-causes in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Int J Sports Med. 1997;18(Suppl 3):S208–15.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Batty GD, Shipley MJ, Marmot M, Smith GD. Physical activity and cause-specific mortality in men with Type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance: evidence from the Whitehall study. Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc. 2002;19(7):580–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Becker-Grünig T, Klose H, Ehlken N, Lichtblau M, Nagel C, Fischer C, et al. Efficacy of exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiol. 2012;168:375.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Helmrich SP, Ragland DR, Leung RW, Paffenbarger RS. Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(3):147–52.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kodama S, Tanaka S, Saito K, Shu M, Sone Y, Onitake F, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(10):999–1008.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Barnes PM, Adams PF, Powell-Griner E. Health characteristics of the Asian adult population: United States, 2004–2006. Adv Data. 2008;394:1–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Ford ES, Merritt RK, Heath GW, Powell KE, Washburn RA, Kriska A, et al. Physical activity behaviors in lower and higher socioeconomic status populations. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133(12):1246–56.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Wilson DK, Kirtland KA, Ainsworth BE, Addy CL. Socioeconomic status and perceptions of access and safety for physical activity. Ann Behav Med. 2004;28(1):20–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bennett GG, McNeill LH, Wolin KY, Duncan DT, Puleo E, Emmons KM. Safe to walk? Neighborhood safety and physical activity among public housing residents. PLoS Med. 2007;4(10):1599–606 discussion 1607.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Molnar BE, Gortmaker SL, Bull FC, Buka SL. Unsafe to play? Neighborhood disorder and lack of safety predict reduced physical activity among urban children and adolescents. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(5):378–86.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Datar A, Nicosia N, Shier V. Parent perceptions of neighborhood safety and children’s physical activity, sedentary behavior, and obesity: evidence from a national longitudinal study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(10):1065–73.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Berry JW. Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In: Chun KM, Balls P, Mar G, editors. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2003. p. 17–37.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  17. Castro VS. Acculturation and psychological adaptation. Westport: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group; 2003 215 p.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Crespo CJ, Smit E, Carter-Pokras O, Andersen R. Acculturation and leisure-time physical inactivity in Mexican American adults: results from NHANES III, 1988-1994. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(8):1254–7.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Unger JB, Reynolds K, Shakib S, Spruijt-Metz D, Sun P, Johnson CA. Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. J Community Health. 2004;29(6):467–81.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Wolin KY, Colditz G, Stoddard AM, Emmons KM, Sorensen G. Acculturation and physical activity in a working class multiethnic population. Prev Med. 2006;42(4):266–72.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Ponce NA, Lavarreda SA, Yen W, Brown ER, DiSogra C, Satter DE. The California Health Interview Survey 2001: translation of a major survey for California’s multiethnic population. Public Health Rep. 2004;119(4):388–95.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Today I Will. MET minutes: A simple common value to track exercise progress (Internet). (cited 2014 Jan 30). http://todayiwill.com/2012/04/met-minutes-a-simple-common-value-to-track-exercise-progress/#.Uuqi-vaCudM.

  23. Bushman BA. How can I use METS to quantify the amount of aerobic exercise. ACSM’s Health Fit J. 2012;16(2):5–7.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Van Wieren AJ, Roberts MB, Arellano N, Feller ER, Diaz JA. Acculturation and cardiovascular behaviors among Latinos in California by country/region of origin. J Immigr Minor Health Cent Minor Public Health. 2011;13(6):975–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, Chaitman B, et al. Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all Americans. A statement for health professionals by the Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1996;94(4):857–62.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Blair SN, LaMonte MJ, Nichaman MZ. The evolution of physical activity recommendations: how much is enough? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(5):913S–20S.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. U.S. Department of Health and Huamn Services. California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) (Internet). 2006 (cited 2014 Jun 18). http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/06/catalog-ai-an-na/CHIS.htm.

  28. Haskell WL, Lee I-M, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1423–34.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Bharmal N, Kaplan RM, Shapiro MF, Mangione CM, Kagawa-Singer M, Wong MD, et al. The association of duration of residence in the United States with cardiovascular disease risk factors among South Asian immigrants. J Immigrant Minority Health. 2014. doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9973-7.

  30. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363(9403):157–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Samaha FF. New international measuring stick for defining obesity in non-Europeans. Circulation. 2007;115(16):2089–90.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Maxwell AE, Crespi CM, Alano RE, Sudan M, Bastani R. Health risk behaviors among five Asian American subgroups in California: identifying intervention priorities. J Immigr Minor Health Cent Minor Public Health. 2012;14(5):890–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Banta JE, Przekop P, Haviland MG, Pereau M. Binge drinking among California adults: results from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2008;34(6):801–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Banta JE, James S, Haviland MG, Andersen RM. Race/ethnicity, parent-identified emotional difficulties, and mental health visits among California children. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2013;40(1):5–19.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Marquez DX, McAuley E. Gender and acculturation influences on physical activity in Latino adults. Ann Behav Med Publ Soc Behav Med. 2006;31(2):138–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Abraido-Lanza AF, Chao MT, Florez KR. Do healthy behaviors decline with greater acculturation?: Implications for the Latino mortality paradox. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61(6):1243–55.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Berlin JA, Colditz GA. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132(4):612–28.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Lee I-M. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Circulation. 2000;102(9):975–80.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Can Med Assoc J. 2006;174(6):801–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Healthy People 2020, Physical Activity. Physical Activity—Healthy People (Internet). 2013 (cited 2013 May 21). http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=33.

  41. Trinh OT, Nguyen ND, Dibley MJ, Phongsavan P, Bauman AE. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City. BMC Public Health. 2008;9(8):204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Wang S, Quan J, Kanaya AM, Fernandez A. Asian Americans and obesity in California: a protective effect of biculturalism. J Immigr Minor Health Cent Minor Public Health. 2011;13(2):276–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Wen M, Kandula NR, Lauderdale DS. Walking for transportation or leisure: what difference does the neighborhood make? J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(12):1674–80.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Bungum TJ, Landers M, Azzarelli M, Moonie S. Perceived environmental physical activity correlates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans. J Phys Act Health. 2012;9(8):1098–104.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Belza B, Walwick J, Schwartz S, LoGerfo J, Shiu-Thornton S, Taylor M. Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: voices from multiple cultures. Prev Chronic Dis (Internet). 2004 Sep 15 (cited 2014 Jun 17);1(4). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1277949/.

  46. SAALT. About the South Asian Community (Internet). 2012 (cited 2012 Aug 20). http://www.saalt.org/pages/About-the-South-Asian-Community.html.

  47. The White House. Executive order 13515—Asian American and Pacific Islander Community | The White House (Internet). 2009 (cited 2012 Nov 4). http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/executive-order-asian-american-and-pacific-islander-community.

  48. Lee E. Working with Asian Americans: a guide for clinicians. New York: Guilford Press; 2000. p. 524.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Palaniappan LP, Araneta MRG, Assimes TL, Barrett-Connor EL, Carnethon MR, Criqui MH, et al. Call to action: cardiovascular disease in Asian Americans: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;122(12):1242–52.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Ryan C, Shaw R, Pliam M, Zapolanski AJ, Murphy M, Valle HV, et al. Coronary heart disease in Filipino and Filipino-American patients: prevalence of risk factors and outcomes of treatment. J Invasive Cardiol. 2000;12(3):134–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. CDC. Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) home (Internet). 2013 (cited 2014 Feb 12). http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/reach/.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and their collaborators for making the California Health Interview Survey publically available. We would also like to thank Benjamin Becerra for his statistical consultation. This project was partially funded by Center for Health Research Dissertation Award at Loma Linda University.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Monideepa Bhattacharya Becerra.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 92 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bhattacharya Becerra, M., Herring, P., Marshak, H.H. et al. Social Determinants of Physical Activity Among Adult Asian-Americans: Results from a Population-Based Survey in California. J Immigrant Minority Health 17, 1061–1069 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-014-0074-z

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-014-0074-z

Keywords

  • Acculturation
  • Physical activity
  • American College of Sports Medicine
  • Asian Americans
  • California Health Interview Survey