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Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1259–1276 | Cite as

Depression in Cardiovascular Patients in Middle Eastern Populations: A Literature Review

  • Tam Truong DonnellyEmail author
  • Jassim Mohd Al Suwaidi
  • Awad Al-Qahtani
  • Nidal Asaad
  • Najlaa Abdul Qader
  • Rajvir Singh
  • Tak Shing Fung
  • Irem Mueed
  • Shima Sharara
  • Noha El Banna
  • Sarah Omar
Review Paper
  • 362 Downloads

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in Middle Eastern countries. Depression is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates among cardiovascular (CV) patients. Early detection of and intervention for depression among CV patients can reduce morbidity and mortality and save health care costs. Public information on mental health care needs of Arab CV patients living in Middle East regions is scattered and limited. This literature review surveyed and summarized research studies to learn what is known about the relationship between depression and CVD in Middle Eastern populations. The information will raise awareness among health care professionals and policy makers regarding the clinical significance of depression in Arab CV patients. It might contribute to development of culturally appropriate and effective mental health care services. Multiple databases were searched and 60 articles were assessed, including studies that investigated depression in Arab CV patient populations, physiological mechanisms of depression-CVD comorbidity, and intervention strategies that affect CV risk in depressed Arab patients. We discuss the extent to which this issue has been explored in Arab populations living in Middle East regions and Arab populations living abroad. We recommend that more comprehensive and in-depth research studies be conducted with Arab cardiac patients to enable implementation of culturally appropriate and effective mental health care interventions.

Keywords

Depression Depression and cardiovascular diseases Arab cardiac patients Arab patients’ mental health care Depression among cardiovascular patients in the Middle East 

Abbreviations

ACS

Acute coronary artery syndrome

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

ANS

Autonomic nervous system

apo A

Apolipoprotein A

apo B

Apolipoprotein B

ASD

Atrial septal defect

BDI

Beck Depression Inventory

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

Coronary artery disease

CES-D

Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale

CGI-S

Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale

CIS

Clinical interview schedule

CR

Cardiac rehabilitation

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DASS 42

Depression Anxiety Stress Scale

ECG

Electrocardiogram

ECT

Electroconvulsive therapy

GDS

Geriatric Depression Scale

HADS

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

HAMD

Hamilton Depression Rating Scale

HDL

High density lipoproteins

HPA

Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal

HRQoL

Health related quality of life

HRV

Heart rate variability

HSCL-25

Hopkins Symptoms Checklist 25

IMT

Inspiratory muscle training

LDL

Low density lipoproteins

Lp a

Lipoprotein a

LV

Left ventricular

MHI

Mental Health Inventory

MI

Myocardial infarction

MLHFQ

Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire

MPV

Mean platelet volume

NHP

Nottingham Health Profile

NO

Nitric oxide

PAIS-SR

Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale—Self Report Version

PAR

Population attributable risk

PHQ

Patient Health Questionnaire

PWD

P wave dispersion

QTD

QT dispersion

SF-36

Medical Outcomes Study—36-item Short Form Survey

SSRI

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

TaaQol/TAAQOL

aka TNO/AZL Adult Quality of Life

TGs

Triglycerides

UAE

United Arab Emirates

VAS

Visual Analogue Scale

VMAT2

Vesicular monoamine transporter

Notes

Acknowledgments

This publication was made possible by a grant from Qatar National Research Fund under its National Priority Research Program (NPRP 5-106-3-025). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of Qatar National Research Fund.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tam Truong Donnelly
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jassim Mohd Al Suwaidi
    • 2
  • Awad Al-Qahtani
    • 2
  • Nidal Asaad
    • 2
  • Najlaa Abdul Qader
    • 2
  • Rajvir Singh
    • 2
  • Tak Shing Fung
    • 3
  • Irem Mueed
    • 1
  • Shima Sharara
    • 1
  • Noha El Banna
    • 1
  • Sarah Omar
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Calgary-QatarDohaQatar
  2. 2.Hamad Medical CorporationDohaQatar
  3. 3.University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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