Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1025–1032 | Cite as

Development and Psychometric Assessment of the Measure of Globalization Influence on Health Risk (MGIHR) Among Mexican Women with Breast Cancer

  • Jesse N. Nodora
  • Scott C. Carvajal
  • Rebeca Robles-Garcia
  • Francisco Páez Agraz
  • Adrian Daneri-Navarro
  • Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro
  • Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan
  • Maria Elena Martinez
Original Paper


Lacking in the literature are data addressing the extent to which changes in reproductive and lifestyle factors predispose women in developing nations to higher breast cancer rates, and the degree to which these are due to globalization influences. This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of an instrument intended to measure global, predominantly U.S., influences on breast cancer risk profile among women residing in Mexico. Using investigator consensus and a focus group methodology, the Measure of Globalization Influence on Health Risk (MGIHR) was developed and completed by 341 women. Psychometric analysis support the use of an 11-item Consumerism and Modernity scale and 7-item Reproductive Control and Gender Role scale. The MGIHR is a valid and reliable instrument for understanding changing lifestyle and reproductive factors for breast cancer risk and may provide a more complete understanding of breast cancer development and needed interventions.


Mexican women Breast cancer risk factors Scale validation Globalization Westernization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesse N. Nodora
    • 1
  • Scott C. Carvajal
    • 2
  • Rebeca Robles-Garcia
    • 3
  • Francisco Páez Agraz
    • 4
  • Adrian Daneri-Navarro
    • 5
  • Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro
    • 6
  • Luis Enrique Gutierrez-Millan
    • 7
  • Maria Elena Martinez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Moores UCSD Cancer CenterUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego, La JollaUSA
  2. 2.Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public HealthUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la FuenteCiudad de MexicoMexico
  4. 4.Focus Salud México S.C.Ciudad de MexicoMexico
  5. 5.Universidad de GuadalajaraGuadalajaraMexico
  6. 6.Instituto Tecnológico de SonoraCiudad ObregónMexico
  7. 7.Universidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico

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