Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 192–197 | Cite as

Cultural and Social Influences on Adolescent Smoking Dissipate by Emerging Adulthood Among Hispanics in Southern California

  • Jon-Patrick Allem
  • Daniel W. Soto
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
  • Steve Sussman
  • Jennifer B. Unger
Original Paper


The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed.


Hispanic Emerging adults Adolescence Smoking 


  1. 1.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2011 National Survey on drug use and health: summary of national findings, NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4713. Rockville: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paavola M, Vartiainen E, Haukkala A. Smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity: a 13-year longitudinal study ranging from adolescence into adulthood. J Adolesc Health. 2004;35:238–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Soto DW, Baezconde-Garbanati L. Parent–child acculturation discrepancies as a risk factor for substance use among Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. J Immigr Minor Health. 2009;11:149–57.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Soto C, Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Soto DW, Black DS, Baezconde-Garbanati L. Cultural values associated with substance use among Hispanic adolescents in southern California. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46:1223–33.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lorenzo-Blanco EI, Unger JB, Ritt-Olson A, Soto D, Baezconde-Garbanati L. Acculturation, gender, depression, and cigarette smoking among US Hispanic youth: the mediating role of perceived discrimination. J Youth Adolesc. 2011;40:1519–33.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Okamoto J, Ritt-Olson A, Soto D, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Unger JB. Perceived discrimination and substance use among Latino adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2009;33:718–27.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eisenberg ME, Forster JL. Adolescent smoking behavior: measures of social norms. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:122–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gritz ER, Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS, Jones MM, Rosenblum C, Chang CC, Chamberlain RM, Taylor WC, Johnston D, de Moor C. Predictors of susceptibility to smoking and ever smoking: a longitudinal study in a triethnic sample of adolescents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:493–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Franca LR, Dautzenberg B, Falissard B, Reynaud M. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2009;4. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-4-9.
  11. 11.
    Johnson CC, Li D, Perry CL, Elder JP, Feldman HA, Kelder SH, Stone EJ. Fifth through eighth grade longitudinal predictors of tobacco use among a racially diverse cohort: CATCH. J Sch Health. 2002;72:58–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim MJ, Fleming CB, Catalano RF. Individual and social influences on progression to daily smoking during adolescence. Pediatrics. 2009;124:895–902.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Slomkowski C, Rende R, Novak S, Lloyd-Richardson E, Niaura R. Sibling effects on smoking in adolescence: evidence for social influence from a genetically informative design. Addiction. 2005;100:430–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Unger JB, Rohrbach LA, Howard-Pitney B, Ritt-Olson A, Mouttapa M. Peer influences and susceptibility to smoking among California adolescents. Subst Use Misuse. 2001;36:551–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chalela P, Velez LF, Ramirez AG. Social influences, and attitudes and beliefs associated with smoking among border Latino youth. J Sch Health. 2007;77:187–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guyll M, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT. Discrimination and unfair treatment: relationship to cardiovascular reactivity among African American and European American women. Health Psychol. 2001;20:315–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cuéllar I, Arnold B, González G. Cognitive referents of acculturation: assessment of cultural constructs in Mexican Americans. J Community Psychol. 1995;23:339–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    King G, Tomz M, Wittenberg J. Making the most of statistical analyses: improving interpretation and presentation. Am J Polit Sci. 2000;44:341–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Diggle PJ, Heagerty DP, Liang KY, Zeger SL. Analysis of longitudinal data. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arnett JJ. Emerging adulthood: the winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arnett JJ. The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood. J Drug Issues. 2005;35:235–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Allem JP, Soto DW, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Unger JB. Role transitions in emerging adulthood are associated with smoking among Hispanics in Southern California. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013.
  23. 23.
    Pierce JP, White VM, Emery SL. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation? Tob Control. 2012;21:258–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alamar B, Glantz SA. Effect of increased social unacceptability of cigarette smoking on reduction in cigarette consumption. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1359–63.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamilton WL, Biener L, Brennan RT. Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts. Health Educ Res. 2008;23:709–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Farkas AJ, Gilpin EA, White MM, Pierce JP. Association between household and workplace smoking restrictions and adolescent smoking. JAMA. 2000;284:717–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McDevitt M, Butler M. Latino youth as information leaders: implications for family interaction and civic engagement in immigrant communities. InterActions. 2011;7:1–27.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chokshi DA, Farley TA. The cost-effectiveness of environmental approaches to disease prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:295–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bader P, Travis HE, Skinner HA. Knowledge synthesis of smoking cessation among employed and unemployed young adults. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:1434–43.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dobbins M, DeCorby K, Manske S, Goldblatt E. Effective practices for school-based tobacco use prevention. Prev Med. 2008;46:289–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chassin L, Presson CC, Rose JS, Sherman SJ. The natural history of cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood: demographic predictors of continuity and change. Health Psychol. 1996;15:478–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Park S, Weaver TE, Romer D. Predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late adolescence and young adulthood. J Drug Educ. 2010;40:125–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Windle M, Windle RC. Early onset problem behaviors and alcohol, tobacco, and other substance use disorders in young adulthood. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;121:152–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon-Patrick Allem
    • 1
  • Daniel W. Soto
    • 1
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
    • 1
  • Steve Sussman
    • 1
  • Jennifer B. Unger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineKeck School of Medicine of USCLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations