Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 326–333 | Cite as

Factors Associated with Sexual and Reproductive Health Care by Mexican Immigrant Women in New York City: A Mixed Method Study

  • Gabriela S. Betancourt
  • Lisa Colarossi
  • Amanda Perez
Original Paper

Abstract

Limited research has examined barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for Mexican immigrant women, especially those living in the eastern United States. This mixed-method study describes SRH care utilization and barriers experienced by female Mexican immigrants living in New York City. One hundred and fifty-one women completed surveys, and twenty-three also participated in focus groups. Usage of SRH care was low apart from prenatal services. The highest barriers included cost, language differences, child care, and poor service quality. After adjusting for insurance status, barriers were associated with receipt of gynecological care from a clinic or private doctor. Greater SRH knowledge was associated with current contraceptive use and a recent PAP test. Women reported that promotoras could increase information about SRH and decrease barriers. Results suggest that in a context where services are geographically available, health care utilization is impacted by lack of knowledge and structural barriers such as language, cost, and child care. Implications for community outreach are discussed.

Keywords

Sexual and reproductive health Barriers Utilization Immigrants 

References

  1. 1.
    New York City Department of City Planning Population Division. The newest New Yorkers: immigrant New York in the new millennium; 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bergad LW. Mexicans in New York City, 2007: an update. Latino Data Project, Report 26; Dec 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fry R. Latino settlement in the new century. Washington DC: Pew Hispanic Center; 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bergad LW. Mexicans in New York City, 1990–2005. Latino Data Project; 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Foulkes R, et al. Opportunities for action: addressing Latina sexual and reproductive health. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2005;37(1):39–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Colarossi L, et al. Developing culturally relevant educational materials about emergency contraception. J Health Commun. 2010;15(5):502–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norgren T. Mexicans in New York City: addressing the health concerns of one of the City’s fastest growing Hispanic groups. Public Health Solutions (PULSE)—Linking research and service to address public health problems. Medical Health and Research Association of New York City, vol VI: No. 4; 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kerker BD, et al. Women at risk: the health of women in New York City. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Bureau of Epidemiology; 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim M, et al. The health of immigrants in New York City. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davila YR. The social construction and conceptualization of sexual health among Mexican American women. Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2005;19(4):357–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hernandez-Tezoquipa I, Arenas Monreal L, Treviño-Siller S. “Without money you’re nothing”: poverty and health in Mexico from women’s perspective. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2005;13(5):626–33.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Unicef at a Glance. Mexico Statistics, Updated March. 2010. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/mexico_statistics.html. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
  13. 13.
    World Bank. World Development Indicators. 2011. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators?cid=GPD_WDI. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
  14. 14.
    Child Info.org. Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. 2011. http://www.childinfo.org/maternal_mortality_countrydata.php. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
  15. 15.
    Juarez F, et al. Barreras para la maternidad segura en Mexico. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2010.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kendall T. Reproductive rights violations reported by Mexican women with HIV. Health Hum Rights J. 2009;11(2):77–87.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human papillomavirus and related cancers in Mexico. Summary Report. 2010. Available at http//:www.who.int/hpvcentre. Accessed 11 Jan 2011.
  18. 18.
    Foner N. New immigrants in New York. New York: Columbia University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Breitbart V, Morales H, Brown J, Betances B, Kahalnik F. Con un pie en dos islas: cultural bridges that inform sexual and reproductive health in the Dominican Republic and New York. Cult Health Sex. 2010;12(5):543–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith R. Mexican New York. California: University of California Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Becker MH. The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Educ Monogr. 1974;2:324–508.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Janz NK, Becker MH. The health belief model: a decade later. Health Educ Behav. 1984;11(1):1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Harper G, et al. Transdisciplinary research and evaluation for community health initiatives. Health Promot Pract. 2008;9:328–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and techniques. London: Sage; 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bazeley P. Integrating data analyses in mixed methods research. J Mixed Methods Res. 2009;3(3):203–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tashakkori A, Teddlie C. Mixed methodology: combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 1998.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Green JC. Toward a conceptual framework for mixed-method evaluation designs. Educ Eval Policy Anal. 1989;11(3):255–74.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bray JH, Maxwell SE. Multivariate analysis of variance. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1985.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fuentes L. Latina immigrant women’s access to abortion: insights from interviews with Latina grasstops leaders. 2010. Research brief. New York: National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health. Sept. 2010. Available at http://www.latinainstitute.org.
  30. 30.
    Juárez F, et al. Las necesidades de salud sexual y reproductive de las adolescentes en México: Retos y oportunidades. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2010.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Campero Cuenca L. Educación y salud de la mujer: reflexiones desde una perspectiva de género. Salud Pública de México. 1996;38(003):217–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shedlin MG, Shulman L. Qualitative needs assessment of HIV services among Dominican, Mexican and Central American immigrant populations living in the New York City area. AIDS Care. 2004;16(4):434–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Earner I. Double risk: immigrant mothers, domestic violence and public child welfare services in New York City. Eval Progr Plan. 2010;33:288–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nandi A, et al. Access to and use of health services among undocumented Mexican immigrants in a U.S. urban area. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(11):2011–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gregg J, et al. Beliefs about the pap smear among Mexican immigrants. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;13:899–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela S. Betancourt
    • 1
  • Lisa Colarossi
    • 1
  • Amanda Perez
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Research and EvaluationPlanned Parenthood of New York CityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Education and TrainingPlanned Parenthood of New York CityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations