Skip to main content

Gender Inequality and Job Satisfaction in Senegal: A Multiple Mediation Model

Abstract

Women are often found to be in inferior jobs with lower wages and lower job quality, but to report higher job satisfaction. This gender-job satisfaction paradox is documented for high-income countries and is explained by gender inequality in job quality and expectations. In this paper we document this paradox for a developing country. We explore the complex relationship between gender, job quality and job satisfaction among agro-industry workers in Senegal, using primary data from a comprehensive worker survey. We use a multiple mediation model to disentangle direct and indirect pathways through which gender relates to job satisfaction. We find that women’s job satisfaction is higher, despite earning lower wages, receiving fewer nonwage benefits, being more in casual employment, and working fewer hours than men. Moreover, job satisfaction varies more strongly with gender than with worker education, wages or other job quality characteristics. We find that gender inequality in job quality mitigates the positive relationship between gender and job satisfaction, with wage and nonwage benefits as major mediating variables. Our findings imply opposing direct and indirect gender effects on job satisfaction, and bring some nuance in the debate on how reducing gender inequality in job quality may affect women’s job satisfaction.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. Akay & Martinsson (2011) and Kuegler (2009) found that for the very poor absolute income matters more than the relative income. Since the horticultural sector typically employs the poorest members of society, we decided to include absolute rather than relative wage.

  2. We tested the model including squares of age, wage and hours; yet as none of the squared terms are statistically significant this is not reported.

References

Download references

Funding

Funding was provided by Cgiar Research Program on Policies, Institutions and Markets (Grant number 2018X044.KUL).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anna Fabry.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix 1: OLS regression results

  Linear model 1 Linear model 2
  Unst. coef St. coef Unst. coef St. coef
Women 0.18** 0.09** 0.41*** 0.21***
(0.12) (0.06) (0.12) (0.05)
Job characteristics
Log (wage) 0.65*** 0.26*** 0.47*** 0.19***
(0.19) (0.07) (0.16) (0.07)
Nonwage benefits 0.07 0.08 0.12*** 0.14***
(0.06) (0.06) (0.05) (0.05)
Employment status (Casual) 0.28 0.14 0.06 0.03
(0.16) (0.07) (0.14) (0.07)
Working hours 0.00 0.04 −0.00 −0.06
(0.01) (0.06) (0.01) (0.06)
Demographic characteristics
Age    0.15 0.02
   (0.63) (0.07)
Married    0.12 0.06
   (0.11) (0.05)
Oulof    0.01 0.01
   (0.09) (0.04)
Years of schooling    −0.03*** −0.16***
   (0.01) (0.05)
Total children    −0.09*** −0.23***
   (0.03) (0.07)
Health    0.26*** 0.41***
   (0.03) (0.04)
  1. * p <0.1; ** p <0.05;  *** p <0.01. Standard errors in parentheses. N = 385
  2. Company fixed effects and enumerator fixed effects are included in all models. Linear model 1 is given in Eq. 2 and linear model 2 in Eq. 7.- both are estimated without mediation.

Appendix 2: Results from single mediation models

  Wage Non-wage benefits Employment status Working hours
  Unst. coef St. coef Unst. coef St. coef Unst. coef St. coef Unst. coef St. coef
Women 0.43*** 0.21*** 0.37*** 0.18*** 0.40*** 0.20*** 0.30*** 0.15***
(0.11) (0.05) (0.11) (0.05) (0.11) (0.06) (0.11) (0.05)
Job characteristics
Log (wage) 0.51*** 0.20***       
(0.13) (0.05)       
Nonwage benefits    0.15*** 0.17***     
   (0.05) (0.05)     
Employment status (Casual)      −0.21* −0.10*   
     (0.11) (0.06)   
Working hours        −0.01* −0.10*
       (0.00) (0.05)
Demographic characteristics
Age 0.18 0.02 0.31 0.04 0.33 0.04 0.49 0.06
(0.61) (0.07) (0.61) (0.07) (0.62) (0.07) (0.62) (0.07)
Married 0.08 0.04 0.14 0.07 0.09 0.05 0.12 0.06
(0.10) (0.05) (0.10) (0.05) (0.11) (0.05) (0.10) (0.05)
Oulof 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01
(0.09) (0.04) (0.09) (0.05) (0.09) (0.05) (0.09) (0.05)
Years of schooling −0.03*** −0.14*** −0.02** −0.12** −0.02** −0.12** −0.02** −0.11**
(0.01) (0.05) (0.01) (0.05) (0.01) (0.05) (0.01) (0.05)
Total children −0.09*** −0.22*** −0.09*** −0.23*** −0.09*** −0.22*** −0.10*** −0.24***
(0.03) (0.07) (0.03) (0.07) (0.03) (0.07) (0.03) (0.07)
Health 0.25*** 0.40*** 0.27*** 0.42*** 0.26*** 0.41*** 0.27*** 0.42***
(0.03) (0.04) (0.03) (0.04) (0.03) (0.04) (0.03) (0.04)
  1. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05;  *** p < 0.01. Standard errors in parentheses. N = 385
  2. Company fixed effects and enumerator fixed effects are included in all models.

Appendix 3: OLS regression results with gender interaction terms

  Baseline (Gender = 0: Men) Interaction effect (Gender = 1: Women)
Job characteristics
Log (wage) 0.40 0.06
(0.26) (0.37)
Nonwage benefits 0.07 0.13
(0.07) (0.11)
Employment status (Casual) −0.09 0.35
(0.21) (0.31)
Working hours −0.01 0.00
(0.01) (0.01)
Demographic characteristics
Age −0.10 0.19
(1.03) (1.40)
Married 0.19 −0.10
(0.16) (0.23)
Oulof −0.00 0.06
(0.13) (0.20)
Years of schooling −0.03** 0.00
(0.01) (0.02)
Total children −0.09** 0.01
(0.04) (0.06)
Health 0.23*** 0.05
(0.05) (0.07)
  1. * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05;  *** p < 0.01. Standard errors in parentheses. N= 385
  2. Company fixed effects and enumerator fixed effects are included in all models

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fabry, A., Van den Broeck, G. & Maertens, M. Gender Inequality and Job Satisfaction in Senegal: A Multiple Mediation Model. J Happiness Stud 23, 2291–2311 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00498-2

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00498-2

Keywords

  • Gender
  • Inequality
  • Decent work
  • Job quality
  • Job satisfaction
  • Developing country