The present research explored the link of triarchic model of grit underpinned by three dimensions – perseverance of effort, consistency of interest, and adaptability to situations with well-being outcomes using a cross-cultural design among Filipino, Japanese, and Polish undergraduate students (Study 1), a cross-sectional design including Filipino employees (Study 2), and a longitudinal design involving Filipino high school students (Study 3). Study 1 demonstrated that perseverance was positively correlated with flourishing in Japanese undergraduate students. Adaptability was related to increased flourishing among Filipino, Japanese, and Polish students. Study 2 showed that both adaptability and perseverance positively predicted psychological flourishing in selected Filipino employees. Study 3 demonstrated that T1perseverance and T1adaptability positively predicted T2life satisfaction even after controlling for age, gender, previous GPA, and auto-regressor effects. However, all dimensions of grit did not predict T2flourishing. Implications of the results to advancing the extant grit theory are discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
We examined full measurement model for flourishing scale, based on single items. However, in Poland we were forced to allow for three correlations between errors to achieve good model fit. Therefore, as we were interested in examining interrelations in structural model and comparisons the results across three countries, we decided to use parcels to minimize measurement error and stabilize models fit.
Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 1–44.
Bennett, M. (1977). Response characteristics of bilingual managers to organisational questionnaires. Personnel Psychology, 30, 29–36.
Bojanowska, A., & Piotrowski, K. (2018). Two levels of personality: Temperament and values and their effects on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0043-0.
Bowman, N. A., Hill, P. L., Denson, N., & Bronkema, R. (2015). Keep on truckin’ or stay the course? Exploring grit dimensions as differential predictors of educational achievement, satisfaction, and intentions. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 639–645.
Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464–504.
Church, A. T. (1987). Personality research in a non-western culture: The Philippines. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 272–292.
Coffman, D. L., & MacCallum, R. C. (2005). Using parcels to convert path analysis models into latent variable models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40, 235–259.
Combs, J. G. (2010). Big samples and small effects: Let's not trade relevance and rigor for power. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 9–13.
Crede, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2017). Much ado about grit: A meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113, 492–511.
Datu, J. A. D., & McInerney, D. M. (2017). Does culture matter for grit? Mapping cross-cultural directions in grit research programs. In F. Guay, H. W. Marsh, R. G. Craven, & D. M. McInerney (Eds.), Self-driving positive psychology and well-being: International advances in self research (Vol. 6, pp. 113–133). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Datu, J. A. D., Valdez, J. P. M., & King, R. B. (2016). Perseverance counts but consistency does not! Validating the Short-Grit Scale in a collectivist setting. Current Psychology, 35, 121–130.
Datu, J. A. D., Yuen, M., & Chen, G. (2017a). Development and validation of the triarchic model of grit scale (TMGS): Evidence from Filipino undergraduate students. Personality and Individual Differences, 114, 198–205.
Datu, J. A. D., Yuen, M., & Chen, G. (2017b). Grit and determination: A review of literature with implications for theory and research. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 27, 168–176.
Datu, J. A. D., Yuen, M., & Chen, G. (2018a). Exploring determination for long-term goals in a collectivist context: A qualitative study. Current Psychology, 37, 263–271.
Datu, J. A. D., Yuen, M., & Chen, G. (2018b). The triarchic model of grit is linked to academic success and well-being among Filipino high school students. School Psychology Quarterly, 33, 428–438.
Datu, J. A. D., King, R. B., Valdez, J. P. M., & Eala, M. S. (2019). Grit is associated with lower depression via meaning in life among Filipino high school students. Youth & Society, 51, 865–876.
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., Oishi, S., et al. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97, 143–156.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
DiMenichi, B. C., & Richmond, L. L. (2015). Reflecting on past failures leads to increased perseverance and sustained attention. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, 180–193.
Disabato, D. J., Goodman, F. R., & Kashdan, T. B. (2018). Is grit relevant to well-being and strengths? Evidence across the globe for separating perseverance of effort and consistency of interests. Journal of Personality. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12382.
Dreisbach, G., & Frӧber, K. (2019). On how to be flexible (or not): Modulation of the stability-flexibility balance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721418800030.
Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1087–1101.
Duckworth, A. L., & Yeager, D. S. (2015). Measurement matters: Assessing personal qualities other than cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher, 44, 237–251.
Dumfart, B., & Neubauer, A. C. (2016). Conscientiousness is the most powerful noncognitive predictor of school achievement in adolescents. Journal of Individual Differences, 37, 8–15.
Eskreis-Winkler, L., Shulman, E. P., Beal, S. A., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). The grit effect: Predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 36. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00036.
Gray, K. (2017). How to map theory: Reliable methods are fruitless without rigorous theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 731–741.
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299.
Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects. Psychological Inquiry, 26, 1–26.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362.
Harzing, A. W. (2006). Response styles in cross-national survey research: A 26-country study. The International Journal of Cross-cultural Management, 6, 243–266.
Hashimoto, H., & Yamagishi, T. (2013). Two faces of interdependence: Harmony seeking and rejection avoidance. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 142–151.
Hill, P. L., & Jackson, J. J. (2016). The invest-and-accrue model of conscientiousness. Review of General Psychology, 20, 141–154.
Hofstede Insights (2018, December). Compare countries.https://www.hofstede-insights.com/product/compare-countries/.
Hwang, M. H., Lim, H. J., & Ha, H. S. (2018). Effects of grit on the academic success of adult female students at Korean Open University. Psychological Reports, 121, 705–725.
Ivcevic, Z., & Brackett, M. (2014). Predicting school success: Comparing conscientiousness, grit, and emotion regulation ability. Journal of Research in Personality, 52, 29–36.
Jachimowicz, J. M., Wihler, A., Bailey, E. R., & Galinksy, A. D. (2018). Why grit requires perseverance and passion to positively predict performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 40, 9980–9985.
Jin, B., & Kim, J. (2017). Grit, basic needs satisfaction, and subjective well-being. Journal of Individual Differences, 38, 29–35.
Lance, C., Butts, M., & Michels, L. (2006). The sources of four commonly reported cutoff criteria: What did they really say? Organizational Research Methods, 9, 202–220.
Li, J., Lin, L., Zhao, Y., Chen, J., & Wang, S. (2018a). Grittier Chinese adolescents are happier: The mediating role of mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 131, 232–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.007.
Li, J., Zhao, Y., Kong, F., Du, S., Yang, S., & Wang, S. (2018b). Psychometric assessment of the short grit scale among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 36, 291–296.
Little, R. J. A. (1998). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202.
Lucas, G. M., Gratch, J., Cheng, L., & Marsella, S. (2015). When the going gets tough: Grit predicts costly perseverance. Journal of Research in Personality, 59, 15–22.
Mangolis, S., Schwitzgebel, E., Ozer, D. J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2018). A new measure of life satisfaction: The riverside life satisfaction scale. Journal of Personality Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2018.1464457.
Martin, A. J., Nejad, H. G., Colmar, S., & Liem, G. A. D. (2012). Adaptability: Conceptual and empirical perspectives on responses to change, novelty and uncertainty. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 22, 58–81.
Martin, A. J., Nejad, H. G., Colmar, S., & Liem, G. A. D. (2013). Adaptability: How students’ responses to uncertainty and novelty predict their academic and non-academic outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 728–746.
Matsunaga, M. (2008). Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 4, 260–293.
Meriac, J. P., Slifka, J. S., & LaBat, L. R. (2015). Work ethic and grit: An examination of empirical redundancy. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 401–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.009.
Muenks, K., Wigfield, A., Yang, J. S., & O'Neal, C. R. (2017). How true is grit? Assessing its relations to high school and college students’ personality characteristics, self-regulation, engagement, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109, 599–620.
Ogihara, Y. (2017). Temporal changes in individualism and their ramification in Japan: Rising individualism and conflicts with persisting collectivism. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 695.
Ogihara, Y. (2018). The rise in individualism in Japan: Temporal changes in family structure, 1947–2015. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49, 1219–1226.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.
Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 63, 539–569.
Salles, A., Cohen, G. L., & Mueller, C. M. (2014). The relationship between grit and resident well-being. The American Journal of Surgery, 207, 251–254.
Schlomer, G. L., Bauman, S., & Card, N. A. (2010). Best practices for missing data management in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 1–10.
Schmidt, F. T. C., Nagy, G., Fleckenstein, J., Möller, J., & Retelsdorf, J. (2018). Same same, but different? Relations between facets of conscientiousness and grit. European Journal of Personality. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2171.
Singh, K., & Jha, S. D. (2008). Positive affect and negative affect, and grit as predictors of happiness and life satisfaction. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 40–45.
Steinmetz, H., Schmidt, P., Tina-Booh, A., Wieczorek, S., & Schwartz, S. H. (2009). Testing measurement invariance using multigroup CFA: Differences between educational groups in human values measurement. Quality & Quantity, 43, 599–616.
Suh, E. M. (2007). Downsides of an overly context-sensitive self: Implications from the culture and subjective well-being research. Journal of Personality, 75, 1321.
Vainio, M. M., & Daukantaitė, D. (2016). Grit and different aspects of well-being: Direct and indirect relationships via sense of coherence and authenticity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 5, 2119–2147.
Vazsonyi, A. T., Ksinan, A. J., Jiskrova, G. K., Mikuška, J., Javakhishvili, M., & Cui, G. (2019). To grit or not to grit, that is the question! Journal of Research in Personality, 78, 215–226.
Vignoles, V. L., Owe, E., Becker, M., Smith, P. B., Easterbrook, M. J., Brown, R., et al. (2016). Beyond the ‘east-west’ dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 966–1000.
Wolters, C. A., & Hussain, M. (2015). Investigating grit and its relations with college students’ self-regulated learning and academic achievement. Metacognition and Learning, 10, 293–311.
Yorke, M. (2009). Student experience’ surveys: Some methodological considerations and an empirical investigation. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 34, 721–739.
This research was partly funded by Start-Up Research Grant for Newly-Recruited Assistant Professors (RG 74/2017-2018R) from The Education University of Hong Kong awarded to the first author, National Science Centre, Poland grant [grant number 2017/26/E/HS6/00282] awarded to the third author, and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science grant (18K03027) awarded to the fourth author.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Datu, J.A.D., McInerney, D.M., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. et al. Is Grittiness Next to Happiness? Examining the Association of Triarchic Model of Grit Dimensions with Well-Being Outcomes. J Happiness Stud 22, 981–1009 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-020-00260-6
- Life satisfaction
- Triarchic model of grit
- Positive psychology