Achtziger, A., Hubert, M., Kenning, P., Raab, G., & Reisch, L. (2015). Debt out of control: The links between self-control, compulsive buying, and real debts. Journal of Economic Psychology, 49, 141–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2015.04.003.
Anderson, C. L., & Nevitte, N. (2006). Teach your children well: Values of thrift and saving. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27, 247–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2005.08.001.
Aristotle. (1994). Nicomachean ethics. (W.C. Ross, Trans.). In D.C. Stevenson (Ed.), The internet classics archives. (Original work published 350 B.C.E.).
Austin, T. (2017). Giving USA special report on giving to religion. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy.
Barraza, J. A., & Zak, P. J. (2009). Empathy toward strangers triggers oxytocin release and subsequent generosity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1167, 182–189.
Blankenhorn, D. (2008). Thrift: A cyclopedia. West Conschohocken, PA: Templeton Press.
Blankenhorn, D., Whitehead, B. D., & Brophy-Warren, S. (2009). Franklin’s thrift: The lost history of an American virtue. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press.
Bor, J., Cohen, G. H., & Galea, S. (2017). Population health in an era of rising income inequality: USA, 1980–2015. The Lancet, 389, 1475–1490.
Bradshaw, T. (2007). Theories of poverty and anti-poverty programs in community development. Community Development, 38, 7–25.
Bugg, C. (1991). Stewardship. In T. C. Butler (Ed.), Holman Bible dictionary. Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers.
Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon’s Mechanical Turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3–5. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610393980.
Cantor, N. (1990). From thought to behavior: “Having” and “doing” in the study of personality and cognition. American Psychologist, 45, 735–750. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.6.735.
Chancellor, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2011). Happiness and thrift: When (spending) less is (hedonically) more. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21, 131–138.
Choenni, C. E. S. (2011). Integration Hindustani style? On the migration, history and diaspora of Hindustanis. Amsterdam: Free University of Amsterdam.
Cordon, W. M. (2012). Global imbalances and the paradox of thrift. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 28, 431–443.
DeSteno, D., Bartlett, M. Y., Baumann, J., Williams, L. A., & Dickens, L. (2010). Gratitude as moral sentiment: Emotion-guided cooperation in economic exchange. Emotion, 10, 289–293.
Dickens, L., & DeSteno, D. (2016). The grateful are patient: Heightened daily gratitude is associated with attenuated temporal discounting. Emotion, 16, 421–425. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000176.
Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
Dunn, E. W., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2011). If money doesn’t make you happy, then you probably aren’t spending it right. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21, 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.002.
Fleeson, W., Furr, R. M., Jayawickreme, E., Meindl, P., & Helzer, E. G. (2014). Character: The prospects for a personality-based perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8, 178–191.
Flood, G. (1997). The meaning and context of the Puruṣārthas. In J. Lipner (Ed.), The fruits of our desiring: An enquiry into the ethics of the Bhagavadītā for our times (pp. 11–27). Calgary: Bayeux Arts.
Frank, B., Enkawa, T., & Schvaneveldt, S. J. (2015). The role of individualism vs. collectivism in the formation of repurchase intent: A cross-industry comparison of the effects of cultural and personal values. Journal of Economic Psychology, 51, 261–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2015.08.008.
Ger, G., & Belk, R. W. (1996). Cross-cultural differences in materialism. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17, 55–77.
Haslam, N., Bain, P., & Neal, D. (2004). The implicit structure of positive characteristics. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 529–541.
John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The big five inventory: Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California.
Keynes, J. M. (1936). The general theory of employment, interest, and money. London: Macmillan.
Kohout, F. J., Berkman, L. F., Evans, D. A., & Cornoni-Huntley, J. (1993). Two shorter forms of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) depression symptoms index. Journal of Aging Health, 5, 179–193.
Kotler, P. (2011). Reinventing marketing to manage the environmental imperative. Journal of Marketing, 75, 132–135.
Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., Stillman, T. F., & Dean, L. R. (2009). More gratitude, less materialism: The mediating role of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760802216311.
Lapsley, D. K., & Narvaez, D. (2014). The having, doing and being of moral personality. In N. Snow & F. V. Trivigno (Eds.), The philosophy and psychology of character and happiness (pp. 133–159). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lastovicka, J. L., Bettencourt, L. A., Hughner, R., & Kuntze, R. J. (1999). Lifestyle of the tight and frugal: Theory and measurement. Journal of Consumer Research, 26, 85–98.
Macdonald, C., Bore, M., & Munro, D. (2008). Values in action scale and the Big 5: An empirical indication of structure. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 787–799.
MacIntyre, A. (2007). After virtue: A study in moral theory. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341.
Matherly, T. (2019). A panel for lemons? Positivity bias, reputation systems and data quality on MTurk. European Journal of Marketing, 53, 195–223.
McAdams, D. P., & Pals, J. L. (2006). A new Big Five: Fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality. American Psychologist, 61, 204–217.
McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112–127.
McCullough, M. E., Kimeldorf, M. B., & Cohen, A. D. (2008). An adaptation for altruism? The social causes, social effects, and social evolution of gratitude. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 281–285.
Miller, C. B. (2013). Moral character: An empirical theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus user’s guide (7th edn). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
North, M. S., & Fiske, S. T. (2016). Resource scarcity and prescriptive attitudes generate subtle, intergenerational older-worker exclusion. Journal of Social Issues, 72, 122–145. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12159.
Otto, A. M. C., Schots, P. A. M., Westerman, J. A. J., & Webley, P. (2006). Children’s use of saving strategies: An experimental approach. Journal of Economic Psychology, 27, 57–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2005.06.013.
Pargament, K. I., Magyar, G. M., Benore, E., & Mahoney, A. (2005a). Sacrilege: A study of sacred loss and desecration and their implications for health and well-being in a community sample. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44, 59–78.
Pargament, K. I., Magyar-Russell, G. M., & Murray-Swank, N. A. (2005b). The sacred and the search for significance: Religion as a unique process. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 665–687.
Pargament, K. I., & Mahoney, A. (2005). Sacred matters: Sanctification as a vital topic for the psychology of religion. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 15, 179–198.
Pepper, M., Jackson, T., & Uzzell, D. (2009). An examination of the values that motivate socially conscious and frugal consumer behaviours. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, 126–136.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: Oxford University Press.
Phipps, M., Ozanne, L. K., Luchs, M. G., Subrahmanyan, S., Kapitan, S., Catlin, J. R., et al. (2013). Understanding the inherent complexity of sustainable consumption: A social cognitive framework. Journal of Business Research, 66, 1227–1234.
Piff, P. K., Kraus, M. W., Côté, S., Cheng, B. H., & Keltner, D. (2010). Having less, giving more: The influence of social class on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 771–784.
Rabinovich, A., & Webley, P. (2007). Filling the gap between planning and doing: Psychological factors involved in the successful implementation of saving intention. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 444–461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2006.09.002.
Raffel, S. (2001). On generosity. History of the Human Sciences, 14, 111–128.
Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012). Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11467.
Richins, M. L. (2004). The material values scale: Measurement properties and development of a short form. Journal of consumer Research, 31, 209–219.
Rick, S. I., Cryder, C. E., & Loewenstein, G. (2008). Tightwads and spendthrifts. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 767–782.
Roberts, J. A., Tsang, J. A., & Manolis, C. (2015). Looking for happiness in all the wrong places: The moderating role of gratitude and affect in the materialism–life satisfaction relationship. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(6), 489–498. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1004553.
Ruch, W., Gander, F., Wagner, L., & Giuliani, F. (2019). The structure of character: On the relationships between character strengths and virtues. The Journal of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1689418.
Schnitker, S. A. (2012). An examination of patience and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7, 263–280.
Schnitker, S. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2019). Personality and religion. In O. P. John & R. W. Robins (Eds.), Handbook of personality (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. (in press).
Schnitker, S. A., King, P. E., & Houltberg, B. J. (2019). Religion, spirituality, and thriving: Transcendent narrative, virtue, and telos. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29, 276–290.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19–45.
Shah, A. K., Mullainathan, S., & Shafir, E. (2012). Some consequences of having too little. Science, 338, 682–685.
Shah, A. K., Shafir, E., & Mullainathan, S. (2015). Scarcity frames value. Psychological Science, 26, 402–412.
Sharpe Wessling, K., Huber, J., & Netzer, O. (2017). MTurk character misrepresentation: Assessment and solutions. Journal of Consumer Research, 44, 211–230. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucx053.
Shim, S., Serido, J., & Tang, C. (2012). The ant and the grasshopper revisited: The present psychological benefits of saving and future oriented financial behaviors. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2011.08.005.
Smith, C., & Hill, J. P. (2009). Toward the measurement of Interpersonal Generosity (IG): An IG scale conceptualized, tested, and validated. Unpublished monograph. Retrieved March 2015, from http://generosityresearch.nd.edu/assets/13798/ig_paper_smith_hill_rev.pdf.
Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271–324.
Tatzel, M. (2002). “Money worlds” and well-being: An integration of money dispositions, materialism and price-related behaviors. Journal of Economic Psychology, 23, 103–126.
Templeton, J. M. (2004). Thrift and generosity: The joy of giving. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Thies, C. F. (1996). The paradox of thrift: RIP. Cato Journal, 16, 119–127.
Tsang, J. A., Carpenter, T. P., Roberts, J. A., Frisch, M. B., & Carlisle, R. D. (2014). Why are materialists less happy? The role of gratitude and need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 62–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.009.
Watson, J. J. (2003). The relationship of materialism to spending tendencies, saving, and debt. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 723–739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2003.06.001.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1070–1083.
Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., et al. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory—10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84–96.