Do Equal Rights for a Minority Affect General Life Satisfaction?
While previous research examines how institutions matter for general life satisfaction and how specific institutions embodying equal rights for gay people matter for the life satisfaction of gays, we combine these two issues to analyze how the latter type of institutions relates to general life satisfaction. The question is how people in general are affected by laws treating everyone equally irrespective of sexual orientation. We find that legal recognition of partnership, marriage and adoption rights, as well as an equal age of consent, relate positively to general life satisfaction. Consequently, same-sex marriage and similar reforms come at no “welfare” cost to society at large—if anything, the opposite appears to hold. We further build on previous research showing positive effects of economic freedom on happiness and on tolerance towards gay people and interact our rights measure with economic freedom. This reveals that the positive effect on general happiness of equal rights mainly appears in countries with low economic freedom. This likely follows because minority rights are perceived to indicate openness to much-desired reforms in other areas.
KeywordsLife satisfaction Same-sex marriage Rights Institutions Culture Immigration Tolerance Gays and lesbians Minorities Integration
The authors wish to thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet, Grant 2103-734, Berggren and Nilsson), Torsten Söderberg’s Foundation (Grant E1/14, Berggren and Nilsson), the Czech Science Foundation (GA ČR, Grant 16-19934S, Berggren and Nilsson) and the Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation (Bjørnskov) for financial support.
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