Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 277–295 | Cite as

Depression, Positive and Negative Affect, Optimism and Health-Related Quality of Life in Recently Diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis Patients: The Role of Identity, Sense of Coherence, and Self-efficacy

  • Emanuela CalandriEmail author
  • Federica Graziano
  • Martina Borghi
  • Silvia Bonino
Research Paper


The study aimed to describe the levels of depression, positive and negative affect, optimism and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a group of recently diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients (up to 3 years since the diagnosis), taking into account gender, age, and disease duration differences, and to investigate the possible role of identity, sense of coherence (SOC), and self-efficacy in MS (SEMS) on patients’ depression, positive and negative affect, optimism, and HRQOL. The cross-sectional study involved 90 MS patients (61% women; age: M = 37, SD = 12) with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score between 1 and 4 (mild to moderate disability). Patients completed measures of depression (CESD-10), positive and negative affect (PANAS), optimism (LOT-R), HRQOL (SF-12), identity motives, SOC, and SEMS. Depression scores were near the cut-off level for clinically significant depressive symptoms, and negative affect was higher and HRQOL was lower than those in the general population. Women and younger patients reported better adjustment as time passes since the diagnosis. Results of multiple regressions indicated that higher SOC was related to higher mental health, lower negative affect and lower depression. Higher SEMS was predictive of greater positive affect and lower negative affect, whereas higher identity satisfaction was predictive of higher positive affect and optimism and lower depression. The results suggest the usefulness of addressing identity redefinition, SOC and self-efficacy in psychological interventions aimed at promoting patients’ adjustment to MS.


Multiple sclerosis Health-related quality of life Optimism Positive and negative affect Self-efficacy Sense of coherence 



We thank all the patients of the CRESM (Regional Referral Multiple Sclerosis Centre) Torino, Italy, who participated in this study.


This study was funded by the Cosso Foundation, Pinerolo, Torino (Italy).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.Cosso FoundationPinerolo, TurinItaly
  3. 3.Neurology 2 - CRESM (Regional Referral Multiple Sclerosis Centre)San Luigi Gonzaga HospitalOrbassanoItaly

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