Prior research suggests that fruit and vegetable intake predicts psychological well-being (WB) when controlled for demographic variables such as age, income and education. Using multiple-item measures and including additional diet and health variables as covariates, the current study assessed self-reported well-being in the past week and daily fruit and vegetable consumption over the past 4 weeks for 1270 university students. Mean positive affect increased linearly as a function of number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables; the pattern of this relationship did not differ significantly for males and females. This association remained statistically significant after controlling for demographic variables (age, sex, and parent education levels); other diet variables (consumption of sugar containing beverages, coffee or tea, and fat); and other health behaviors (exercise, sleep quality and smoking). Life satisfaction and negative affect were not significantly related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Analysis of single-item measures similar to those used in past large scale surveys yielded similar results. Possible reasons for the association of fruits and vegetable consumption with well-being are discussed.
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Warner, R.M., Frye, K., Morrell, J.S. et al. Fruit and Vegetable Intake Predicts Positive Affect. J Happiness Stud 18, 809–826 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9749-6
- Subjective well-being
- Positive affect