This study examined the relationship of creative capacity with happiness, affect, motivation, and stress from creative pursuits using a sample of 420 students. In addition, it tested whether a relationship existed between overall creative capacity and specific styles or approaches to creative expression. A composite creative capacity score was derived from four creative capacity measures. Creative capacity was not significantly correlated with happiness, but it correlated significantly with positive and negative affect scales and with their absolute sum. Creative capacity correlated highest with intrinsic motivation (IM) among all variables. Creative capacity and IM correlated similarly in direction and magnitude with creativity styles subscales of Belief in Unconscious Processes, Use of Techniques, and Use of Senses, and negative correlations with the Use of People and Final Product Orientation Subscales.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Amabile, T. M. (1985). Motivation and creativity: Effects of motivational orientation on creative writers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 393–399.
Amabile, T., Barsade, S. G., Mueller, J. S., & Staw, B. M. (2005). Affect and creativity. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 367–403.
Amabile, T. M., DeJong, W., & Lepper, M. (1976). Effects of externally imposed deadlines on subsequent intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 92–98.
Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A., & Tighe, E. M. (1994). The work preference inventory: Assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 950–967.
Bass, M., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood–creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134, 779–806.
Bass, M., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2011). Creative productivity by angry people peaks early on, declines over time, and is relative unstructured. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 47, 1107–1115.
Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 245–265.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.
Dowell, J. (2008). The Creativity Styles Questionnaire-Revised II: Reliability and validity (Unpublished master’s thesis). West Chester, PA: West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality or myth. American Psychologist, 51, 1153–1166.
Feist, G. J. (1994). Affective consequences of insight in art and science students. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 489–502.
Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific ad artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychological Review, 2, 290–309.
Fuchs, G., Kumar, V. K., & Porter, J. (2007). Emotional creativity, alexithymia, and styles of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 19, 233–245.
Gough, H. G., & Woodworth, D. G. (1960). Stylistic variations among professional research scientists. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 49, 87–98.
Griffin, M., & McDermott, M. R. (1998). Exploring a tripartite relationship between rebelliousness, openness to experience and creativity. Social Behavior and Personality, 26, 347–356.
Helson, R., & Crutchfield, R. S. (1970). Mathematicians: The creative researcher and the average PhD. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 250–257.
Jamison, K. R. (1989). Mood disorders and patterns of creativity in British writers and artists. Psychiatry, 52, 125–134.
Judd, C. M., & McClelland, G. M. (1998). Measurement. In D. T. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 180–232). NY: Oxford University Press.
Katz, A. N. (1984). Creative styles: Relating tests of creativity to the work patterns of scientists. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 281–292.
Kumar, V. K. & Ceci, M. W. (2011). Stress from creative pursuits scale. (Unpublished psychological test). West Chester, PA: Department of Psychology, West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
Kumar, V. K., & Holman, E. R. (1989). Creativity Styles Questionnaire. (Unpublished psychological test). West Chester, PA: Department of Psychology, West Chester University.
Kumar, V. K., Holman, E. R., & Rudegeair, P. (1991). Creativity styles of freshman students. Journal of Creative Behavior, 25, 320–323.
Kumar, V. K., Kemmler, D., & Holman, E. R. (1997). The Creativity Styles Questionnaire—Revised. Creativity Research Journal, 10, 51–58.
Lack, S. A., Kumar, V. K., & Arevalo, S. (2003). Fantasy proneness, creative capacity, and styles of creativity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 96, 19–24.
Manmiller, J. L., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (2005). Hypnotizability, creative capacity, creativity styles, absorption, and phenomenological experiences during hypnosis. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 9–24.
Miller, L. A., McIntire, S. A., & Lovler, R. L. (2011). Foundations of psychological testing. A practical approach (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.
Pollick, M. F., & Kumar, V. K. (1997). Creativity styles of supervising managers. Journal of Creative Behavior, 31, 260–270.
Rothenberg, A. (1990). Creativity and madness. New findings and old stereotypes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Runco, M. A. (2007a). Creativity theories and themes: Research development, and practice. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Runco, M. A. (2007b). Runco Ideational Behavior Scale-III. (Unpublished psychological test). Fullerton, CA: Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, California State University, Fullerton.
Runco, M. A., Plucker, J. A., & Lim, W. (2000–2001). Development and psychometric integrity of a measure of ideational behavior. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 393–400.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.
Rybakowski, J. K., & Klonowska, P. (2011). Bipolar mood disorder, creativity, and schizotypy. An experimental study. Psychopathology, 44, 296–302.
Schou, M. (1979). Artistic productivity and lithium prophylaxis in manic-depressive illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 97–103.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Woolf, V. (1955). To the lighthouse. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace & World.
We thank Dr. Joseph E. Browne for his comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.
About this article
Cite this article
Ceci, M.W., Kumar, V.K. A Correlational Study of Creativity, Happiness, Motivation, and Stress from Creative Pursuits. J Happiness Stud 17, 609–626 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9615-y
- Intrinsic motivation
- Extrinsic motivation