Advertisement

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1423–1436 | Cite as

Associations Between Mindfulness, Psychological Well-Being, and Subjective Well-Being with Respect to Contemplative Practice

  • Adam HanleyEmail author
  • Alia Warner
  • Eric L. Garland
Research Paper

Abstract

The relationship between mindfulness and well-being has received considerable empirical and theoretical attention in the scientific literature recently, with researchers hypothesizing a number of ways in which the two interact. However, a closer examination of the literature indicates that the two primary conceptualizations of well-being, psychological well-being (PWB) and subjective well-being (SWB), are theoretically distinct, yet regularly conflated and rarely examined in tandem. As such, the purpose of this study was to explore the associations between dispositional mindfulness, SWB, and PWB, with respect to contemplative practice, using canonical correlation analysis to examine data derived from an online sample of 361 respondents (106 contemplative practitioners and 245 non-practitioners). Results indicate that contemplative practitioners typically report significantly higher levels of mindfulness, as well as psychological and SWB. Furthermore, dispositional mindfulness is associated with both PWB and SWB, but more closely associated with PWB, irrespective of contemplative practice experience. Finally, mindfulness and well-being appear to be similarly related regardless of contemplative practice, although our findings suggest that contemplative practitioners and non-practitioners may conceptualize SWB differently. Contemplative practitioners appear to group PWB and SWB together in a unified well-being construct, while non-practitioners appear to conceptualize SWB as distinct from PWB.

Keywords

Mindfulness Psychological well-being Subjective well-being Contemplative practice 

References

  1. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., et al. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., & Roeser, R. W. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berinsky, A., Margolis, M., & Sances, M. (2014). Separating the shirkers from the workers? Making sure respondents pay attention on self-administered surveys. American Journal of Political Science, 58(3), 739-753.Google Scholar
  5. Bodhi, B. (2011). What does mindfulness really mean? A canonical perspective. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(01), 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowlin, S. L., & Baer, R. A. (2012). Relationships between mindfulness, self-control, and psychological functioning. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, K. W., & Kasser, T. (2005). Are psychological and ecological well-being compatible? The role of values, mindfulness, and lifestyle. Social Indicators Research, 74(2), 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Linley, P. A., & Orzech, K. (2009). When what one has is enough: Mindfulness, financial desire discrepancy, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 727–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon’s mechanical turk a new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 3–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2008). Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness- based stress reduction program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: An integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(6), 560–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(3), 449–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chisea, A., & Serreti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5), 593–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parents’ mindfulness, child management skills, and relationship quality with their youth: Results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colzato, L. S., Ozturk, A., & Hommel, B. (2012). Meditate to create: The impact of focused- attention and open-monitoring training on convergent and divergent thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1–5.Google Scholar
  17. Davidson, R. J., Dunne, J., Eccles, J. S., Engle, A., Greenberg, M., Jennings,P., et al. (2012). Contemplative practices and mental training: Prospects for American education. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 146–153.Google Scholar
  18. Deiner, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dreyfus, G. (2011). Is mindfulness present-centered and non-judgmental? A discussion of the cognitive dimensions of mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism, 12, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Durkin, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Growth following adversity and its relation with subjective well-being and psychological well-being. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14(3), 228–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness,. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0101-x.Google Scholar
  24. Farb, N. A., Anderson, A. K., & Segal, Z. V. (2012). The mindful brain and emotion regulation in mood disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 57(2), 70.Google Scholar
  25. Garland, E. L., Gaylord, S. A., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Positive reappraisal coping mediates the stress-reductive effect of mindfulness: An upward spiral process. Mindfulness, 2, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(1), 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanley, A. W., Peterson, G. W., Canto A. I., & Garland, (2014). The relationship between mindfulness and posttraumatic growth with respect to contemplative practice engagement. Mindfulness, 1-9.Google Scholar
  28. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hollis-Walker, L., & Colosimo, K. (2011). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and happiness in non-meditators: A theoretical and empirical examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 222–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hölzel, B. K., Lazar, S. W., Gard, T., Schuman-Olivier, Z., Vago, D. R., & Ott, U. (2011). How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 537–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., & Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 773–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jimenez, S. S., Niles, B. L., & Park, C. L. (2010). A mindfulness model of affect regulation and depressive symptoms: Positive emotions, mood regulation expectancies, and self-acceptance as regulatory mechanisms. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(6), 645–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones, K. C., Welton, S. R., Oliver, T. C., & Thoburn, J. W. (2011). Mindfulness, spousal attachment, and marital satisfaction: A mediated model. The Family Journal, 19(4), 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Joseph, S., & Linley, A. (2005). Positive adjustment to threatening events: An organismic valuing theory of growth through adversity. Review of General Psychology, 9, 262–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  36. Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  37. Keng, S. L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kong, F., Wang, X., & Zhao, J. (2014). Dispositional mindfulness and life satisfaction: The role of core self-evaluations. Personality and Individual Differences, 56, 165–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Wood, A. M., Osborne, G., & Hurling, R. (2009). Measuring happiness: The higher order factor structure of subjective and psychological well-being measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 878–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lykins, E. L., & Baer, R. A. (2009). Psychological functioning in a sample of long-term practitioners of mindfulness meditation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(3), 226–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McGarrigle, T., & Walsh, C. A. (2011). Mindfulness, self-care, and wellness in social work: Effects of contemplative training. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 30(3), 212–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nimon, K., Henson, R. K., & Gates, M. S. (2010). Revisiting interpretation of canonical correlation analysis: A tutorial and demonstration of canonical commonality analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 45(4), 702–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ott, M. J., Norris, R. L., & Bauer-Wu, S. M. (2006). Mindfulness meditation for oncology patients: A discussion and critical review. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 5(2), 98–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on amazon mechanical turk. Judgment and Decision making, 5, 412–419.Google Scholar
  45. Ross, J., Irani, L., Silberman, M.S., Zaldivar, A., & Tomlinson, B. (2010). Who are the crowdworkers?: shifting demographics in mechanical turk. In CHI EA’10: Proceedings of the 28th of the international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 2863–2872, New York, NY, USA. ACM.Google Scholar
  46. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schoormans, D., & Nyklíček, I. (2011). Mindfulness and psychologic well-being: Are they related to type of meditation technique practiced? The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(7), 629–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2011). Emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 1116–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shear, J. (2006). The experience of meditation. St. Paul, MN: Paragon House.Google Scholar
  52. Springer, K. W., & Hauser, R. M. (2006). An assessment of the construct validity of Ryff’s scales of psychological well-being: Method, mode, and measurement effects. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1080–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thompson, B. L., & Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26(2), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Sumich, A., Sundin, E. C., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for Psychological Well-Being in a Sub-Clinical Sample of University Students: A Controlled Pilot Study. Mindfulness, 5, 381–391.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational Psychology and Learning SystemsFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Huntsman Cancer InstituteUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations