Skip to main content

Marijuana Use and Well-Being in University Students

Abstract

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance world-wide. Marijuana use is especially prevalent among college and university students and has been associated with both positive and negative well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between the frequency of marijuana use, negative consequences resulting from drug use, well-being, and personality. Undergraduates (N = 570) completed online measures of marijuana use, negative consequences (using a modified form of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index), well-being (happiness, life satisfaction, depression, and positive and negative affect), and personality (using the NEO-PI-R). Rates of marijuana use were higher than those reported in many previous studies. Males reported using marijuana more frequently and using greater amounts than females. Frequency of marijuana use was not associated with well-being. However, negative consequences resulting from drug use were positively correlated with negative well-being, and negatively correlated with positive well-being. People low in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were more likely to use marijuana and experience negative consequences. After controlling for personality, negative consequences did not explain any further variance in positive well-being, but explained a small amount of variance in negative well-being. After marijuana, the most commonly used drugs were hallucinogens, cocaine, ecstasy, MDMA, ketamine, Oxycontin, and prescription stimulants. The relationships between these drugs and well-being varied per individual drug. However, stimulants were consistently related to both well-being and negative consequences. Overall, marijuana use was the greatest contributor to negative consequences.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Arria, A. M., Caldeira, K. M., O’Grady, K. E., Vincent, K. B., Fitzelle, D. B., et al. (2008). Drug exposure opportunities and use patterns among college students: Results of a longitudinal prospective cohort study. Substance Abuse, 29(4), 19–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A., McMurray, M. B., Edelbrock, C. S., & Robbins, K. (1990). Side effects of MPH in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A systematic placebo-controlled evaluation. Pediatrics, 86, 184–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnwell, S. S., Earleywine, M., & Wilcox, R. (2006). Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 1, 1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bottorff, J. L., Johnson, J. L., Moffat, B. M., & Mulvogue, T. (2009). Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens. Substance Abuse, Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 4(7), 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Buckner, J. D., Bonn-Miller, B. O., Zvolensky, M. J., & Schmidt, N. B. (2007). Marijuana use motives and social anxiety among marijuana using young adults. Addictive Behaviors, 32(10), 2238–2252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Busseri, M. A., Sadava, S. W., & Decourville, N. (2007). A hybrid model for research on subjective well-being: Examining common and component specific-sources of variance in life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Social Indicators Research, 83, 414–445.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Hahn, R., & Comrey, A. L. (2001). Factor analyses of the NEO PI-R inventory and the comrey personality scales in Italy and the United States. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(2), 217–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chao, J. Y., & Shai, H. A. (2010). Duloxetine treatment of long-term ketamine abuse-related lower urinary tract symptoms: A case report. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(6), e5–e6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clifford, P. R., Edmundson, E. W., Koch, W. R., & Dodd, B. G. (1991). Drug use and life satisfaction among college students. International Journal of the Addictions, 26(1), 45–53.

    Google Scholar 

  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being: Happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(4), 668–678.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Martin-Santos, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., et al. (2009). Cannabis and anxiety: A critical review of the evidence. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 24(7), 515–523.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Darke, S. (1998). Self-report among injecting drug users: A review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 3(1), 253–263.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Degenhardt, L., Hall, W., & Lynskey, M. (2001). Alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use among Australians: A comparison of their associations with other drug use and use disorders, affective and anxiety disorders, and psychosis. Addiction, 96(11), 1603–1614.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DeNeve, K. M., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 197–229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Denson, T. F., & Earleywine, M. (2006). Decreased depression in marijuana users. Addictive Behaviors, 31(4), 738–742.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DeSantis, A. D., Webb, E. M., & Noar, S. M. (2008). Illicit use of prescription ADHD medications on a college campus: A multimethodological approach. Journal of American College Health, 57(3), 315–324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Pavot, W., & Gallagher, D. (1991). Response artifacts in the measurement of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 24, 35–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(1), 1–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durdle, H., Lundahl, L. H., Johanson, C. E., & Tancer, M. (2008). Major depression: The relative contribution of gender, MDMA, and cannabis use. Depression and Anxiety, 25(3), 241–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eiserman, J. M., Diamond, S., & Schensul, J. J. (2005). “Rollin on E”: A qualitative analysis of ecstasy use among inner city adolescents and young adults. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 4(2), 9–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Falck, R. S., Wang, J., & Carlson, R. G. (2008). Depressive symptomology in young adults with a history of MDMA use: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(1), 47–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Swain-Campbell, N. (2002). Cannabis use and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. Addiction, 97(9), 1123–1135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). Dubai: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C. (2001). Adolescent depression and risk factors. Adolescence, 36(143), 491–498.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleming, C. B., Mason, W. A., Mazza, J. J., Abbott, R. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2008). Latent growth modeling of the relationship between depressive symptoms and substance use during adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(2), 186–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flory, K., Lynam, D., Milich, R., Leukefeld, C., & Clayton, R. (2002). The relations among personality, symptoms of alcohol and marijuana abuse, and symptoms of comorbid psychopathology: Results from a community sample. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10(4), 425–434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford, J. A., & Schroeder, R. D. (2009). Academic strain and non-medical use of prescription stimulants among college students. Deviant Behavior, 30(1), 26–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Georgiades, K., & Boyle, M. H. (2007). Adolescent tobacco and cannabis use: Young adult outcomes from the Ontario child health study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(7), 724–731.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S. (2008). Report from the national survey on drug use and health: Nonmedical stimulant use, other drug use, delinquant behaviors, and depression among adolescents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12(1), 3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez, R., Martin, E. M., & Grant, I. (2007). Marijuana. In A. Kalechstein & W. G. van Gorp (Eds.), Neuropsychology and substance use: State of the art and future directions (pp. 139–170). Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.

    Google Scholar 

  • Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 187(3), 269–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grov, C., Kelly, B. C., & Parsons, J. T. (2009). Polydrug use among club-going young adults recruited through time-space sampling. Substance Use and Misuse, 44(6), 848–864.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gruber, A. J., Pope, H. G., Hudson, J. I., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2003). Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case-control study. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 33(8), 1415–1422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guillot, M. S. (2007). Is recreational ecstasy (mdma) use associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms? Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 39(1), 31–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harder, V. S., Morral, A. R., & Arkes, J. (2006). Marijuana use and depression among adults: Testing for causal associations. Addiction, 101(10), 1463–1472.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Health Canada. (2010). The Canadian alcohol and drug use monitoring survey [www page]. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/drugs-drogues/stat/_2010/summarysommaire-eng.php#cannabis.

  • Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2001). Happiness, introversion-extraversion and happy introverts. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 595–608.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holden, R. R., & Troister, T. (2009). Developments in the self-report assessment of personality and psychopathology in adults. Canadian Psychology, 50(3), 120–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hopkins, K. D., & Weeks, D. L. (1990). Tests for normality and measures of skewness and kurtosis: Their place in research reporting. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50(4), 719–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, K. A., Bonn-Miler, M. O., Leyro, T. M., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2009). Anxious arousal and anhedonic depression symptoms and the frequency of current marijuana use: Testing the mediating role of marijuana-use coping motives among active users. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(4), 543–550.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, J. L., Moffat, B., Bottorff, J., Shoveller, J., Fischer, B., & Haines, R. J. (2008). Beyond the barriers: Marking the place for marijuana use at a Canadian high school. Journal of Youth Studies, 11(1), 47–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2007). Monitoring the future: National survey results on drug use, 19752006: Volume II, college students and adults ages 1945 (NIH Publication No. 07-6206). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  • Kaplan, M. S., Huguet, N., Feeny, D., MacFarland, B. S., et al. (2012). Alcohol use patterns and trajectories of health-related quality of life in middle aged and older adults: A 14 year population based study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(4), 581–590.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kashdan, T. B. (2004). The assessment of subjective well-being (issues raised by the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire). Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1225–1232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kotov, R., Gamez, W., Schmidt, F., & Watson, F. (2010). Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 768–821.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kouri, E., Pope, H. G., Yurgelun-Todd, D., & Gruber, S. (1995). Attributes of heavy vs. occasional marijuana smokers in a college population. Biological Psychiatry, 38(7), 475–481.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurtz, S. P., Inciardi, J. A., Surratt, H. L., & Cottler, L. (2005). Prescription drug abuse among ecstasy users in Miami. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 24(4), 1–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Legleye, S., Beck, F., Peretti-Watel, P., Chau, N., & Firdion, J. M. (2010). Suicidal ideation among young French adults: Association with occupation, family, sexual activity, personal background and drug use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123(1–3), 108–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leri, F., Bruneau, J., & Stewart, J. (2003). Understanding poly-drug use: Review of heroin and cocaine co-use. Addiction, 98(7), 7–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindsay, J. A., Stotts, A. L., Green, C. E., Herin, D. V., & Schmitz, J. M. (2009). Cocaine dependence and concurrent marijuana use: A comparison of clinical characteristics. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35(3), 193–198.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Looby, A., & Earleywine, M. (2007). Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2, 1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • López, A., & Becoña, E. (2007). Depression and cocaine dependence. Psychological Reports, 100(2), 520–524.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mabry, E. A., & Khavari, K. A. (1986). Attitude and personality correlates of hallucinogenic drug use. International Journal of the Addictions, 21(6), 691–699.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacInnes, N., Handley, S. L., & Harding, G. F. A. (2001). Former chronic methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) users report mild depressive symptoms. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15(3), 181–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marlatt, G. A., & Witkiewitz, K. (2010). Update on harm-reduction policy and intervention research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 591–606.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marmorstein, N. R., White, H., Chung, T., Hipwell, A., Stouthamer-Louber, M., & Loeber, R. (2010). Associations between first use of substances and change in internalizing symptoms among girls: Differences by symptom trajectory and substance use type. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(4), 545–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martens, M. P., Parker, J. C., Smarr, K. L., Hewett, J. E., Ge, B., Slaughter, J. R., et al. (2006). Development of a shortened center for epidemiological studies depression scale for assessment of depression in rheumatoid arthritis. Rehabilitation Psychology, 51, 135–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martins, S. S., Storr, C. L., Alexandre, P. K., & Chilcoat, H. D. (2008). Adolescent ecstasy and other drug use in the national survey of parents and youth: The role of sensation seeking, parental monitoring and peer’s drug use. Addictive Behaviors, 33(7), 919–933.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1991). Adding liebe und arbeit: The full five factor model and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 227–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mezquita, L., Stewart, S. H., & Ruipérez, M. (2004). Big-five personality domains predict internal drinking motives in young adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 240–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, E. T., Neal, D. J., Roberts, L. J., Baer, J. S., Cressler, S. O., Metrik, J., et al. (2002). Test–retest reliability of alcohol measures: Is there a difference between internet based assessment and traditional methods? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 56–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milstein, S. L., McCannell, K. L., Karr, G. W., & Clark, S. (1974). Marijuana produced changes in cutaneous sensitivity and affect: Users and non-users. Paharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 2(3), 367–374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohler-Kuo, M., Lee, J. E., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Trends in marijuana use and other illicit drug use among college students: Results from four harvard school of public health college alcohol study surveys: 1993–2001. Journal of American College Health, 52(1), 17–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moore, T. H. N., Zammit, S., Lingford-Hughes, A., Barnes, T. R. E., Jones, P. B., et al. (2007). Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: A systematic review. The Lancet, 370(9584), 312–328.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morean, W. E., & Corbin, W. R. (2008). Subjective alcohol effects and drinking behavior: The relative influence of early response and acquired tolerance. Addictive Behaviors, 33(10), 1306–1313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mulgrew, I. (2005). Bud Inc.: Inside Canada’s marijuana industry. Toronto: Random House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nail, R., Gunderson, E. K., & Kolb, D. (1974). Motives for drug use among light and heavy users. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 159(2), 131–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Najt, P., Fusar-Poly, P., & Brambilla, P. (2010). Co-occurring mental and substance use disorders: A review of the potential predictors and clinical outcomes. Psychiatry Research, 186(2), 159–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the satisfaction with life scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 149–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen, W. (2008). Does cannabis use lead to depression and suicidal behaviours? A population-based longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 118(5), 395–403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piedmont, R. L. (1998). The revised neo personality inventory: Clinical and research implications. New York: Plenum Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Radloff, L. S. (1991). The use of center for epidemiologic studies depression scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20(2), 149–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosellini, A. J., & Brown, T. A. (2011). The neo five factor inventory: Latent structure and relationships with dimensions of anxiety and depressive disorders in a large clinical sample. Assessment, 18(1), 27–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Savas, D. (2001). Public opinion and illicit drugs: Canadian attitudes towards decriminalizin the use of marijuana. Vancouver, BC: The Fraser Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schneider, M., & Koch, M. (2003). Chronic pubertal, but not adult chronic cannabinoid treatment impairs sensorimotor gating, recognition memory, and the performance in a progressive ratio task in adult rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28(10), 1760–1769.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schorling, J. B., Gutgesell, M., Klas, P., Smith, D., & Keller, A. (1994). Tobacco, alcohol and other drug use among college students. Journal of Substance Abuse, 6, 105–115.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sessa, B. (2008). Is it time to revisit the role of psychedelic drugs in enhancing human creativity? Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(8), 821–827.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shealy, A. E., Murphy, J. G., Borsari, B., & Correia, C. J. (2007). Predictors of motivation to change alcohol use among referred college students. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 2358–2364.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simoni-Wastila, L., Yang, H. K., & Lawler, J. (2008). Correlates of prescription drug nonmedical use and problem use by adolescents. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2(1), 31–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Simons, J., & Carey, K. B. (1998). A structural analysis of attitudes toward alcohol and marijuana use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(7), 727–735.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spada, M. M., Nikčević, A. V., Moneta, G. B., & Wells, A. (2008). Metacognition, perceived stress, and negative emotion. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1172–1181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2010). Results from the 2009 national survey on drug use and health: Volume i. Summary of national findings (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-38A, HHS Publication No. SMA 10 4586 Findings). Rockville, MD.

  • Sumnall, H., Bellis, M. A., Hughes, K., Calafat, A., Juan, M., & Mendes, F. (2010). A choice between fun or health? Relationships between nightlife substance use, happiness, and mental well-being. Journal of Substance Use, 15(12), 89–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Multiple regression. In B. G. Tabachnick & L. S. Fidell (Eds.), Using multivariate statistics (4th ed., pp. 111–176). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, H. (1972). Opinions on marijuana: Sex differences at a Canadian university. Canadian Counselor, 6(2), 116–119.

    Google Scholar 

  • Terracciano, A., Löckenhoff, C. E., Crum, R. M., Bienvenu, J., & Costa, P. T. (2008). Five factor model personality profiles of drug users. BioMed Central Psychiatry, 8(22), ArtID22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teter, C. J., Falone, A. E., Cranford, J. A., Boyd, C. J., & McCabe, S. E. (2010). Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and depressed mood among college students: Frequency and routes of administration. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 38(3), 292–298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomasius, R., Zapletalova, P., Petersen, K., Buchert, R., et al. (2006). Mood, cognition and serotonin transporter availability in current and former ecstasy (MDMA) users: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20(2), 211–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tkach, C., & Lyubormirsky, S. (2006). How do people pursue happiness? Increasing strategies and well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(2), 183–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, G. A., de Andrade Stempliuk, V., Zilberman, M. L., Barroso, L. P., & de Andrade, A. G. (2007). Alcohol and drug use among university students: Gender differences. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 29(2), 123–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weyandt, L. L., Janusis, G., Wilson, K. G., Verdi, G., et al. (2009). Nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of college students: Relationship with psychological variables. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13(3), 284–296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, H. R., & Labouvie, E. W. (1989). Towards the assessment of adolescent problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 30–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Windle, M., & Welch, K. (1995). The prevalence and prospective predictors of cocaine use among a national U.S. sample of young adults. Addiction Research, 3(1), 39–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wish, E. D., Fitzelle, D. B., O’Grady, K. E., Hsu, M. H., & Arria, A. M. (2006). Evidence of significant poly-drug use among ecstasy using college students. Journal of American College Health, 55(2), 99–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization. (2006). World drug report: Volume 1: Analysis. New York: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zullig, K. J., Valois, R. F., Heubner, E. S., Oeltmann, J. E., & Drane, J. W. (2001). Relationship between perceived life satisfaction and adolescents’ substance abuse. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 279–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mark D. Holder.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Allen, J., Holder, M.D. Marijuana Use and Well-Being in University Students. J Happiness Stud 15, 301–321 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9423-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9423-1

Keywords

  • Well-being
  • Happiness
  • Life satisfaction
  • Personality
  • Marijuana
  • Depression
  • Drug
  • Consequences