Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 169–184

Comparing Three Methods to Measure a Balanced Time Perspective: The Relationship Between a Balanced Time Perspective and Subjective Well-Being

  • Jia Wei Zhang
  • Ryan T. Howell
  • Maciej Stolarski
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10902-012-9322-x

Cite this article as:
Zhang, J.W., Howell, R.T. & Stolarski, M. J Happiness Stud (2013) 14: 169. doi:10.1007/s10902-012-9322-x


The goals of this study were to determine the relations between having a balanced time perspective (BTP) with various measures of subjective well-being (SWB) and to test how various operationalizations of a BTP might impact the relation between having a BTP and SWB. We operationalized a balanced time perspective using: (a) Drake et al.’s Time Soc 17(1):47–61, (2008) cut-off-point method, (b) Boniwell et al.’s J Posit Psychol 5(1):24–40, (2010) suggestion of using a hierarchical cluster analysis, and (c) a deviation from a balanced time perspective (DBTP; Stolarski et al. Time Soc, 2011). The results demonstrated that having a BTP is related to increased satisfaction with life, happiness, positive affect, psychological need satisfaction, self-determination, vitality, and gratitude as well as decreased negative affect. Also, the DBTP was the best predictor of SWB. We discuss why individuals with a BTP are likely to be happier in life.


Time perspectives Well-being Subjective time Happiness Balanced time perspective 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jia Wei Zhang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ryan T. Howell
    • 1
  • Maciej Stolarski
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySan Francisco State UniversitySan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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