Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 561–573 | Cite as

Free Time Management Contributes to Better Quality of Life: A Study of Undergraduate Students in Taiwan

  • Wei-Ching Wang
  • Chin-Hsung Kao
  • Tzung-Cheng Huan
  • Chung-Chi WuEmail author


This study was designed to identify the relationship between free time management and quality of life, exploring whether the amount of free time or the way people using their free time relates to their quality of life. Data were collected from National Pingtung University of Science and Technology in Taiwan. Of the 500 questionnaires distribute, 403 usable questionnaires were received with an 81% response rate. The result has found a positive relationship between free time management and quality of life. Contrary to this, there was no significant relationship between time allocation and quality of life. Results might indicate that people who manage their free time well lead to better quality of life. Suggestions based on the observed relationship and directions for future researches were discussed.


Free time Time management Quality of life Undergraduates 


  1. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Averill, J. R. (1973). Personal control of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 50, 179–211.Google Scholar
  3. Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of advanced academics, 20(2), 274–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazerman, M. H. (1982). Impact of personal control on performance: Is added control always beneficial? Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 472–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bognar, G. (2005). The concept of quality of life. Social Theory and Practice, 31(4), 561–580.Google Scholar
  6. Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (1989). Time management questionnaire. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 439–440). NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Britton, B. K., & Tesser, A. (1991). Effects of time-management practices on college grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buckworth, J., & Nigg, C. (2004). Physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behavior in college students. Journal of American College Health, 53(1), 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caldwell, L. L., Baldwin, C. K., Walls, T., & Smith, E. (2004). Preliminary effects of a leisure education program to promote healthy use of free time among middle school adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(3), 310–335.Google Scholar
  10. Charlesworth, J. C. (1964). A comprehensive plan for the wise use of leisure. In J. C. Charlesworth (Ed.), Leisure in America: Blessing or curse (pp. 30–46). PA: American Academy of Political Social Science.Google Scholar
  11. Coleman, D., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1993). Leisure and health: The role of social support and self determination. Journal of Leisure Research, 25, 111–128.Google Scholar
  12. Covey, S. R., Merill, A. R., & Merill, R. R. (2004). First things first: To live, to love, to learn, to leave a legacy. NY: Covey Leadership Center, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Department of Statistics of Executive Yuan, Taiwan. (2004). National time spending survey. Accessed 12 Dec 2009.
  14. Driver, B. L., Brown, P. J., & Peterson, G. L. (1991). Leisure benefits. PA: Venture.Google Scholar
  15. Executive Yuan, Taiwan. (2004). Time use survey in Taiwan. Accessed 25 Jan 2009.
  16. Fayers, P. M., & Machin, D. (2000). Quality of life: Assessment, analysis and interpretation. Engldand: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
  17. Fedorov, A. V. (2005). School students and computer games with screen violence. Russian Education and Society, 47(11), 88–96.Google Scholar
  18. Ganley, R. M. (1989). Emotion and eating in obesity: A review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8, 343–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. George, D., Dixon, S., Stansal, E., Gelb, S. L., & Pheri, T. (2008). Time diary and questionnaire assessment of factors associated with academic and personal success among university undergraduates. Journal of American College Health, 56(6), 706–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gholam, H. G., Azadeh, T., Maryam, B., Mahdieh, M., & Mahdi, S. (2010). Quality of life in college students with and without social phobia. Social Indicators Research, 97, 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Godbey, G. (1999). Leisure and leisure services in the 21st century. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Greenberger, D. B., Strasser, S., Cummings, L. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1989). The impact of personal control on performance and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 43, 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gussen, J. (1967). The Psychodynamics of Leisure. In P. A. Martin (Ed.), Leisure and mental health: A psychiatric viewpoint (pp. 51–69). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  24. Hair, J. F., Jr., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  25. Hickerson, B. D., & Beggs, B. A. (2007). Leisure time boredom: Issues concerning college students. College Student Journal, 41(4), 1036–1044.Google Scholar
  26. Huffstutter, S., & Smith, S. (1989). Managing time and stress. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Ed.), Washington, DC (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 309 518).Google Scholar
  27. Hultsman, W. Z. (1995). Recognizing patterns of leisure constraints: An extension of exploration of dimensionality. Journal of Leisure Research, 27(3), 228–244.Google Scholar
  28. Iwasaki, Y. (2006). Leisure and quality of life in an international and multicultural context: What are major pathways linking leisure to quality of life? Social Indicators Research, 82, 233–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: A guide to the program and applications. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  30. Kay, T., & Jackson, G. (1991). Leisure despite constraint: The impact of leisure constraints on leisure participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(4), 301–313.Google Scholar
  31. Lakein, A. (1973). How to get control of your time and your life. NY: New American Library.Google Scholar
  32. Lee, J., & Graham, A. V. (2001). Students’ perception of medical school stress and their evaluation of wellness elective. Medical Education, 35, 652–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee, Y., & McCormick, B. P. (2004). Subjective well-being of people with spinal cord injury: Does leisure contribute? Journal of Rehabilitation, 70(3), 5–12.Google Scholar
  34. Macan, T. H. (1994). Time management: Test of a process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Macan, T. M., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students’ time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 760–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mannell, R. C., & Kleiber, D. A. (1997). A social psychology of leisure. PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  37. Mokhtari, K., Reichard, C. A., & Gardner, A. (2009). The impact of Internet and television use on the reading habits and practices of college students. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 52(7), 609–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Newberry, A. L., & Duncan, R. D. (2001). Roles of boredom and life goals in juvenile delinquency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(3), 527–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pawelko, Katharine, A., Magafas, & Anita, H. (1997). Leisure Well-being among adolescent groups: Time, choices and self-determination. Parks and Recreation, 32(7), 26–38.Google Scholar
  40. Pierceall, E. A., & Keim, M. C. (2007). Stress and coping strategies among community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31(9), 703–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roberson, D. N., Jr. (2007). Learning wellness: A water exercise class in Zagreb, Croatia. Educational Gerontology, 33, 631–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robinson, J. (1998). Americans’ use of free time. Washington, DC: Discovery Communications, Inc.Google Scholar
  43. Robinson, J. P., & Godbey, G. (1999). Time for life: The surprising ways Americans use their time. PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Robinson, J., & Godbey, G. (2005). Time in our hands. The Futurist, 18–22 (Sep–Oct).Google Scholar
  45. Sasidharan, V., Payne, L., Orsega-Smith, E., & Godbey, G. (2006). Older adults’ physical activity participation and perceptions of wellbeing: Examining the role of social support for leisure. Managing Leisure, 11(3), 164–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schwartz, G. M., & Campagna, J. (2008). New meaning for the emotional state of the elderly, from a leisure standpoint. Leisure Studies, 27(2), 207–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shaikh, B. T., & Deschamps, J. P. (2006). Life in a university residence: issues, concerns and responses. Education for Health, 19(1), 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shek, D. T. L. (2010). Introduction: Quality of life of Chinese people in a changing world. Social Indicators Research, 95, 357–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spiers, A., & Walker, G. J. (2009). The effects of ethnicity and leisure satisfaction on happiness, peacefulness and quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 31(1), 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Szabo, S. (1996). Chap 36: The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment instrument. In B. Spiker (Ed.), Quality of life and pharmacoeconomics in clinical trials (pp. 355–362). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  51. The WHOQOL Group. (1994). Development of the WHOQOL: Rationale and current status. International Journal of Mental Health, 23(3), 24–56.Google Scholar
  52. The WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization. Social Science Medicine, 41(10), 1403–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. The WHOQOL Group. (1998a). The World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric properties. Social Science Medicine, 46(12), 1569–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. The WHOQOL Group. (1998b). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Trenberth, L. (2005). The role, nature and purpose of leisure and its contribution to individual development and well-being. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 33(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zelmek, A. W. (1959). A changing America: At work and play. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei-Ching Wang
    • 1
  • Chin-Hsung Kao
    • 2
  • Tzung-Cheng Huan
    • 3
  • Chung-Chi Wu
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Business AdministrationNational Chia-Yi UniversityChia-yiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Leisure and Recreation IndustryNational Taiwan Sport UniversityTaoyuanTaiwan
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of Recreation, Tourism and HospitalityNational Chia-yi UniversityChia-yiTaiwan
  4. 4.Department of Recreation Sport and Health PromotionNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyPingtungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations