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Table 1 Scheme 1 Association of religion and happiness in 2000 in The Netherlands, Denmark and the USA

From: Religiousness and happiness in three nations: a research note

Indicators of religiousness Association with happiness
Measure of association Netherlands Denmark USA
Spend time with people at your church: weekly, once or twice a month, only a few times a year, not at all Kendall’s tau-c +0.028 +0.008 +0.188a
Belong church organisation: not mentioned, belong to a church organisation Cramer’s V +0.134 +0.105 +0.196a
Belong to religious denomination: not mentioned, belong to religious denomination Cramer’s V +0.063 +0.080 +0.143a
How often do you attend religious service: (practically) never, more often than ‘(practically) never’, once a year, other specific holy days, only on special holy days/Christmas/Easter, once a month, once a week, more than once a week Kendall’s tau-c +0.037 +0.029 +0.153a
How important is God in your life: one (=not at all) – ten (=very important) Kendall’s tau-c −0.004 +0.035 +0.097a
Moments of prayer, meditation: no I don’t have moments of prayer/meditation, yes I do have moments of prayer/ meditation Cramer’s V +0.106 +0.091 +0.083
Pray to God outside of religious service: every day, more than once a week, once a week, at least once a month, several times a year, less often, never Kendall’s tau-c +0.008 +0.003 −0.071
Average correlation +0.054 +0.050 +0.133
  1. a P < 0.05