The wholesome embracing of conventional planning/design strategies with the resultant contemporary residential buildings by most people in the developing countries has led to the abandonment of the vernacular/traditional building design strategies and concepts, resulting in predominance of peculiar building forms that do not factor in necessary environment considerations in their designs. Consequently, these compact buildings, in addition to other design issues, have been found to be poorly ventilated, due to the prevailing common window type in use, which necessitates reliance on non-dependable mechanical devices for improved indoor air quality. The resultant effect is incessant indoor air pollution with the attendant health implications on occupants of the buildings. This has hitherto never been thought of in the designs. This study therefore examines the health implications of conventional planning/design strategies on residents of these buildings in the hot-humid tropical environment of Enugu, Nigeria. Questionnaire surveys were conducted, and logistic regression used to compare the level of health symptoms experienced by occupants of these buildings with those in buildings with traditional/other strategies. The findings show that some design decisions and residents’ indoor activities account for pollutions within the buildings; this ultimately affect occupants’ health. Residents of conventional planning/design strategy buildings, exhibited more symptoms of the various health challenges associated with the buildings. Recommendations were made for future buildings.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
A’zami, A. (2005). Badger in traditional Iranian architecture. In International conference for the built environment, Santorini, Greece.
Anosike, M. (2015). How dangerous can familiar tech hazard carbon dioxide be, as reported in the news media. Vanguard Newspaper of 05-06, 25(63421), 38.
Bonnefoy, X. (2007). Inadequate housing and health: an overview. International Journal of Environment and Pollution,30(¾), 411–429.
Bonnefoy, X. R., Branbach, M., Moissonnier, B., Monobeav, K., & Robbel, N. (2003). Housing and health in Europe: Preliminary results of a Pan-European study. Am J Public Health, 93(9), 1559–1563.
Burberry, P. (1979). Environment and services. Longman Publishers, Taylor and Francis.
Chafe, Z., et al. (2014). Household cooking with solid fuels contributes to ambient PM2.5 air pollution and burden of diseases. Environment Health Perspective,122(12), 1314–1320.
Chand, L. (1976). Design aid for natural ventilation in buildings. Lecture Programme in Functional Aspects of Building Design (CBRI) (pp. 24–26). Roolces: CBRI.
Cincinelli, A., & Martellini, T. (2017). Indoor air quality and health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,14(11), 1286. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111286.
Dayaratne, R. (2018). Towards sustaenable development: lessons from vernacular settlements of Sri Lanka. Frontiers of Architectural Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2018.04.002.
Desalu, O., Adekoya, A., & Ampitan, B. (2010). Increased risk of respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis in women using biomass fuels in Nigeria. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia,36, 441–446.
Diogu, J. O. (1998). The social importance of urban housing—The health perspective. Journal of Social Studies,1, 85–88.
Dirisu, J. O., et al. (2018). Effects of emission characteristics on elemental composition of selected PVC ceiling materials. Materials Focus,7(4), 566–572.
Dmochowski, Z. (1972). An introduction to Nigerian traditional architecture. Kingston Upon Thames: Jolly and Barber Ltd.
Ezezue, A. M., & Diogu, J. O. (2016). Design strategies reduction of moisture in residential buildings in Enugu Nigeria. Tropical Built Environmental Journal,1(5), 138–141.
Ezezue, A. M., & Diogu, J. O. (2017). Investigation of indoor air quality of residential buildings in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology,6(2), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2168-9717.1000206.
Geros, V. (2006). Indoor air quality in environmental design of urban buildings. London: Earthscan Publishers.
Ghorani-Azam, A., et al. (2016). Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-1995.189646.
Heidari, L., et al. (2016). Integrating health into buildings of the future. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering,139(1), 010802.
Heiselberg, P., Bjorn, E., & Nielson, P. (2016). Impact of open windows on room air flow and thermal comfort. International Journal of Ventilation,1(2), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733315.2002.11683625.
Ige, J., et al. (2019). The relationship between buildings and health: A systematic review. Journal of Public Health,41(2), e121–e132.
Jackson, R. J. (2003). The impact of the built environment on health: an emerging field. American Journal of Public Health,93(9), 1382–1384.
Jiang, Y., Wu, C., & Teng, M. (2020). Impact of residential buildings layouts on microclimate in a high temperature and high humidity region. Sustainability,12(3), 1046.
Kembel, S. W., et al. (2014). Architectural design drives the biogeography indoor bacterial communities. PLOS one. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087093.
Khan, A. H., & Kawppayil, S. M. (2012). Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.06.002.
Lawal, A. F., & Ojo, O. J. (2011). Assessment of thermal performance of residential buildings in Ibadan Land Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS),2(4), 581–586.
Lundgren-Kownacki, K., et al. (2018). Challenges of using air conditioners in an increasingly hot climate. International Journal of Biometeorology,62(3), 401–412.
Maharana, S., et al. (2018). Exposure to indoor air pollution and its perceived impact on health of women and their children: a household survey in a slum of Kolkata, India. Indian Journal of Public Health,62(30), 182–187.
Marc, M., et al. (2018). Indoor air quality of every day use spaces dedicated to specific purposes—A review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,25(3), 2065–2082.
Narayanan, P. (2011). Environmental pollution, principles, analysis and control. New Delhi: CBS Ltd.
Nicol, F. (2004). Adaptive thermal comfort standards in hot humid tropics. Energy and Buildings,36(7), 628–637.
Nigerian National Population Commission, Housing Census, (1991 and 2006).
Odum, C. O. (2013). Innovative and sustainable construction materials and construction technologies for the developing countries: making the right choice is the answer. The Tropical Environment,12(1), 91–107.
Odum, C. O. (2015). Residents, satisfaction with integration of the natural environment in public housing designs. International Journal of Housing Market and Analysis,8(1), 73–96.
Olgyan, V. (1963). Design with climate: Bioclimatic approach to architectural regionalism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Rodriguez, C., et al. (2019). The importance of standardised data collection methods in the improvement of thermal comfort assessment models for developing countries in the tropics. Sustainability,11(15), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3390/su/11154180.
San Jos, R., Perez, J. L., et al. (2019). Health effects of indoor emissions, combining outdoor and indoor pollution simulations. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development,10(11), 394–398.
Simkovich, S., et al. (2019). The health and social implications of household air pollution and respiratory diseases. NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine,29, 1–7.
Smith, K. R. (1993). Fuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The situation in the developing countries. Annual Review of Energy and Environment,18, 529–566.
Stern, A. C., Wqhlers, H. C., Boubel, R. W., & Lowry, W. P. (1973). Fundamentals of Air Pollution. New York: Academic Press.
Tham, K. (2016). Indoor air quality and its effect on humans—A review of challenges and development in the last 30 years. Energy and Buildings,130, 637–650.
Ujunwa, F., & Ezeonu, C. (2014). Risk factors for acute respiratory tract infections in under-five children in Enugu Southeast Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research,4(1), 95–99.
Uzuegbunam, F. O., Ezezue, A. M., & Nwalusi, D. M. (2008). Evaluation of the indoor air quality of residential buildings in the hot-humid tropical environment of enugu. Nigeria: Pushpa Publishing House.
Wang, A., et al. (2018). Impact of housing and community conditions on multidimensional health among middle and low-income groups in Hong Kong. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health,15(6), 1132.
Watson, D. (1989). Bioclimatic design research. In Advances in Solar Energy (Vol. 5, pp. 402-438). Springer.
Wolfgang, L. (2005). Tropical architecture- sustainable and humane building in Africa, Latin America and Asia. New York: Prestel.
World Health Organisation. (2018). Household air pollution and health, WHO facts sheets.
World Health Organization. (2002). Air pollution, database, data on exposure to household air pollution, clean and solid fuels.
Yamane, Taro. (1967). Statistics, an introductory analysis (2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row.
Yang, W., Lin, Y., & Li, C. (2018). Effects of landscaping design on urban microclimate and thermal comfort in tropical climate. Advances in Meteorology. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2809649.
Zarivanskaya, H. A., & Veinsler, M. M. (1976). Housing as a social factor of the environment and its significance in appraising the health of the population. Moscow: BHNN, MH.
Zhang, J., et al. (2019). Health effects of air pollution: What we need to know and do in the next decade. Journal of Thoracic Disease,11(4), 1727–1730.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Odum, C.O., Ezezue, A.M. Health implications of conventional planning/design strategies on occupants of contemporary residential buildings in the hot-humid tropical environment. J Hous and the Built Environ (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10901-020-09769-x
- Residential buildings
- Hot-humid tropical environment
- Indoor air quality
- Indoor air pollution
- Poor ventilation
- Health symptoms
- Global south
- Enugu, Nigeria